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Add to Wish List. Introduction 1. Aim This dissertation is concerned with the language use of two Democratic politicians who are candidates for the United States presidential election of November 4 thnamely Hillary Clinton, senator for New York and Barack Obama, senator for Illinois. Medan University of Sumatera Utara. Kissine, Mikhail. She belongs to the Democratic.

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This will support students to develop a strong foundation and academic independence in preparation for Year 11, 12 and The development of these skills and attributes through the learning experiences offered in the Middle School at Kristin are relevant and desirable outcomes for our students.

The capacity to experience change and the ability to function effectively both independently and collaboratively are critical as students face the opportunities and challenges of adolescence in our complex contemporary context, as well as their future career and education pathways beyond school. Staff who can assist with course selection Executive Principal Tim Oughton Principal, Middle School Mark Haslam. Nick Duirs Faculty of Humanities and Commerce Roger Lewis Faculty of Mathematics Freya England Faculty of English David Shaw Faculty of Languages Trevor Hayes Faculty of Sciences Matthew Campbell.

Megan Bennett Year 8 Dean Deborah Plummer Year 8 Associate Dean Nicola Hackett Year 9 Dean Viv Jones Year 9 Associate Dean Megan Darby Year 10 Dean Colleen Wassung Year 10 Associate Dean Mike Badger. John Osbourne Community Projects Helen Mansfield. Raewyn Casey Director of International Services Jenny Taylor International Student Manager Helen Kim International Services Co-ordinator.

Cindy Tong Enhanced Learning Co-ordinator Megan Darby Chaplain Chanel Houlahan. Neelam Davis. Middle School Years Principles of Effective Middle Schooling Our aim is to offer a developmentally appropriate, holistic programme academic, personal development, sporting, cultural, spiritual that is responsive to the specific individual needs of our students.

Important Information for Parents An integral element of the Middle School learning programme is choice, particularly at Year 9 and 10 when Option Subjects become available. In selecting subjects at each level, we recommend that parents and students keep in mind the following: — Ensure that they select subjects which hold great interest for them — Avoid specialising too early and maintain a broad range of subjects for as long as possible throughout the Middle School — Do not drop a subject that may be needed later — Assess carefully their skills and their areas of interest and try to develop these — Plan their possible option choices, not just for the next year but for the years following — If they have a future career in mind attempt to choose subjects that allow them to gain an insight into that field — Seek advice from the many people at Kristin and at home who are able to provide guidance on subjects and career planning.

Parents and students need to be aware that some courses may not run if, for example, there are insufficient student numbers. Furthermore, with the large number of courses we offer, it is not always feasible to provide every possible combination of subjects. Year 8 and 9 students will be counseled by Tutors on their option selections in Term 3. Year 10 students will be counseled by their respective House Deans in the Senior School for , on their option selections in Term 3, for the following year.

Adolescents have social, physical, emotional and intellectual needs that can only be met through specific educational experiences that are different from either the Junior School or the Senior School. Students undergo huge changes during the time they are in the Middle School and their education during this time must directly address their needs.

What are the needs of these young people in our Middle School? The following seven needs are based on research by Gael Dorman, a renowned American educationalist. All our programmes must be based on these needs. Middle School Curriculum Design Teaching programmes are designed to complement and stimulate learning as the student moves through the progressive sequence of physiological, academic and emotional developmental stages. Students in Year 7 and 8 are required to follow a set programme and in Year 9 and 10 students are offered choices as Option Subjects.

Features of Middle School Programmes — A strong emphasis on being explicitly taught superior literacy and numeracy skills — Programmes that are adapted to the needs of adolescents — A structured pastoral care programme and the assurance that a caring adult is assigned to each student — A variety of programmes involving the creative arts, music, languages and leisure activities — Opportunities for negotiation, goal setting, self-evaluation and reflection — Programmes that provide a sense of immediate feedback and practical outcomes hands on — Emphasis on high-level communication, thinking and problem-solving skills — Education Outside the Classroom EOTC programmes — camps, trips, visitors, community involvement, service learning and special school events.

Digital Technology In Kindergarten to Year 13 Kristin School runs programmes which exploit the rich learning potential of digital technology. During the middle years the use of technology is an integrated part of the curriculum. Students are exposed to a wide variety of technologies ranging from their tablets and laptop computers to robots and 3D printers.

The students are taught to choose the best tools for their learning from a basis of personal experience and skills. A significant focus is Digital Citizenship. BASE Programme Kristin is a non-denominational school founded on traditional Christian values, one of the core values of the school.

Year-level Chapel services are held several times each term encouraging worship and reflection and allowing for a high degree of student participation. In this programme students are given the opportunity to explore issues of life and faith.

Students think critically about their lives: past, present and hopes for the future. They are challenged to explore their values, ethics and world views. Students are exposed to the religions of the world and reflect on their tolerance and respect for all peoples, cultures and religions. The principles of BASE are an inclusive environment of respect, care and sensitivity, understanding where all people have the right to their beliefs and world views. Though much of the teaching is Christian based, world religions and views will be included in an open way.

The BASE programme is not part of the regular timetable, but is given two full school days a year, one in the first semester and one in the second. Gifted and Talented Education GATE Students who are gifted or talented in intellectual, sporting, cultural arts and leadership domains are all catered for in the classroom by differentiated teaching and learning opportunities. There are also programmes on a variety of topics to cater for the needs of these students.

The education and fostering of gifted students is a highly complex area. Striking the balance between the needs of the students, the classroom, specialist gifted programmes and of course social development is something that comes with experience. The Middle School has, over many years, developed considerable practical expertise. It also has the advantages and depth that come with a large school, having the facilities of the Junior, Middle and Senior schools within its physical amenities: rich information and research facilities, laboratories, theatres, specialist teaching areas and teachers, GATE personnel, counselors, educational psychologists and a holistic inquiry-based curriculum can all be drawn upon by the Middle School.

The process relies, in part, upon psychometric testing where available, past and current teacher feedback and parent, peer and self-nomination. One of the great advantages gifted pupils at Kristin have is the high number of students with abilities in a wide variety of areas, ranging from high intellectual ability and potential through artistic and musical talent to sport.

This means that students can be clustered, if appropriate, with others of like skills and interests for educational purposes both within the ordinary class curriculum and outside of traditional teaching boundaries. The numbers involved allow us to run programmes that would be all but impossible in other circumstances.

The Middle School has extensive programmes in place to cater for gifted students which allow for depth and challenge. These include:. These include: — Bridge Building. Cluster is a year-long extension and enrichment programme for Year It is a pull-out program once a seven-day cycle.

It is at a parallel time to the home period. Its purpose is to extend the students in areas such as critical thinking and creative thinking, as well as looking at higher order thinking. The students work with like minds from their own and other classes.

There is an atmosphere of acceptance where they can take risks in their learning without being judged. The annual Forensics Camp was introduced in It caters for Year 8 students who are enrolled as detectives in a program run by Year 9 and 10 students in an exciting crime scene analysis and subsequent trial all of which takes place over a five day period during the holidays.

Year 8 students get to learn forensic techniques and use teamwork to solve the crime and run the trial. Year 9 students learn management and teamwork skills in order to create and run the scenarios. Year 10 students learn leadership skills. The Logistics team of Year 9 and 10 students also learn to project manage, cater and run a small business. English Language Acquisition This is an option choice for students who speak English as a second language.

However, students who are assessed as requiring support will be directed to this subject. At Year 9 students may pick up a second language if desired. Enhanced Learning Does your child find reading and comprehension boring?

Does your child find getting ideas written down a challenge? The assistance of the Middle School Learner Support Team is here to help Specialised assistance is available to support students with the provision of extra instruction and guidance in English literacy skills. Both in-class support and small-group withdrawal is offered, Language Enrichment and Literacy Plus.

Students are identified from standardised test results and educational psychometric reports. Students may also be referred by teachers or parents. Together we work towards setting your child up for greater learning success. Career Services Career Education and Guidance programmes are being implemented within the curriculum at each level in accordance with the Ministry of Education guidelines. Students may also be referred to the Senior School Assistant Principal of Tertiary Futures for individual career counseling.

International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme The IB Middle Years Programme MYP provides a framework of academic challenge that encourages students to embrace and understand the connections between traditional subjects and the real world, and become critical and reflective thinkers. In the MYP, students study eight subject groups. Distinctive features of the MYP include: — Key and related concepts are big ideas, which form the basis of teaching and learning in the MYP.

They promote learning within and across traditional disciplines. They provide a foundation for success in further education and the world beyond the classroom. Students take action when they apply what they are learning in the classroom and beyond. IB learners strive to be caring members of the community who demonstrate a commitment to service — making a positive difference to the lives of others and to the environment.

Learning to communicate in a variety of ways is fundamental to their development of inter-cultural understanding and crucial to their identity affirmation. Assessment in the MYP is criterion referenced, so students around the world are assessed against pre-specified criteria for each subject group. A variety of assessment strategies are used to enable students to best demonstrate the learning that has taken place.

Tasks are set by teachers throughout the course of the programme and are assessed internally in the school. IB Learner Profile The aim of all IB programmes is to develop internationallyminded people who, recognising their common humanity and shared guardianship of the planet, help to create a better and more peaceful world.

IB learners strive to be:. A clear, positive approach to academic honesty as good practice is imperative to ensure that: — Teacher and student integrity is promoted through sound teaching and learning practice — Student research is properly conducted — Assessment is authentic — Intellectual property and copyright regulations of New Zealand are upheld. The aim of this academic honesty policy is to: — Promote the principles and practices of academic honesty to ensure that Middle School students and teachers are fully aware of these — Ensure that students do not have unfair advantage over other students through academically dishonest practices such as collusion, duplication, plagiarism or assessment misconduct — Ensure that the principles and practices of academic honesty are explicitly taught — Detail the opportunities which students receive to learn about and practice academic honesty — Define the specific skills and knowledge Middle School students need, to practice academic honesty — Outline the procedures to be taken when malpractice or infringement may have occurred — To provide a coherent approach which is aligned with the Junior and Senior Schools.

How are students assessed? Teachers organise continuous assessment over the course of the programme taking account of specified criteria that correspond to the objectives for each subject. The MYP offers a criterion-referenced model of assessment. Teachers are responsible for structuring varied and valid assessment tasks that allow students to demonstrate achievement according to the required objectives within each subject group. These may include: — Open-ended, problem-solving activities and investigations — Organised debates — Hands-on experimentation — Analysis — Reflection Assessment strategies, both quantitative and qualitative, provide feedback on the thinking processes as well as the finished piece of work.

There is also an emphasis on self-assessment and peer-assessment within the programme. MYP Assessment Criteria Each subject area has a set of unique criteria that are used to assess student work. The maximum grade awarded for each criteria is 8. This is a major project with a focus of their choice, completed under the close guidance of a supervising teacher.

This is a rewarding opportunity for Year 10 students to undertake a service and action project that inspires them, demonstrates their abilities as good learners, and practically facilitates social responsibility. The Community Project offers students the opportunity to collaborate, if they choose, to complete their inquiry and service with one or two other students.

Each year the Community Project resource is published as a complete online guide for students and their parents. An information evening is also held in Term 1 for parents of Year 10 students. The projects culminate with a presentation to an audience of peers, teachers and parents. Curriculum Integration Wherever possible, the learning programmes incorporate curriculum integration.

Curriculum Staffing To assist in the implementation and co-ordination of MYP, key staff members are responsible for leadership roles in areas of curriculum. These roles include: Assistant Principal Teaching and Learning — responsible for all aspects of. Staff acknowledge that Middle School students require a balanced and healthy lifestyle which involves academic, sport, culture, social life and family.

Therefore, the amount of time provided for homework will reflect this balance. Lillico, Homework should be a balance of: 1. Physical activity Revisiting what is learned at school Cultural pursuits Learning household tasks. Homework enables our students to become independent learners. Homework will: — Be introduced and explained by teachers who are mindful and supportive of the fact that students and their families lead busy lives.

Feedback — All work should be acknowledged by the teacher in writing tick, comment etc or verbally to the student — Where possible and appropriate, precise feedback should be provided relating to what the student needs to do to effect improvement — Staff will monitor students who do not complete required homework and alert the Dean about any students they have concerns about — If a student is under-performing, it is required of staff that they take action.

Talk to the student, talk to the parents and talk to the Dean. This could include such things as: — Physical activity — Cultural pursuits — Reading for pleasure. Year 8 Home Room teachers monitor all homework. Year 9 No student in Year 9 will exceed 3 hours of homework per week.

This could include such things as: — Physical activity — Cultural pursuits — Reading for pleasure — Community Project. The Assessment Calendar is a means by which students are supported with their personal planning and organisation so that not only can their assessments be completed on time but also to a high standard. Homework Club The Middle School Homework Club runs three times a week and provides the opportunity for students to practise good homework habits and to gain support with specific subjects and areas of difficulty.

Tests and Examinations — Years assessments are integrated into the curriculum and therefore there are no examinations. Every student needs to have a relationship with at least one adult that is characterised by warmth, concern, understanding and openness. Each student is placed in a tutor group whereby, on a daily basis, they meet with the same student group and tutor teacher for the calendar year.

Each year level has a Dean, who has overall responsibility for the year group and works with all staff involved with students at that year level. Each Dean begins with a group at Year 7 and moves up each year with the group to the next level. The Guidance Counselors work with students and their families to provide support for learning, behavioural and emotional issues.

Communication with Parents A close relationship between home and school is essential for student success. Parents are urged to contact the year-level Dean about any matter affecting the welfare of their child. If in doubt parents should phone or email. Rewarding Student Achievement We place the highest priority on ensuring that not only are our students given the opportunity to succeed in a wide range of activities but that their achievements in these activities are acknowledged.

These go into the draw for gift vouchers. When students collect 20 stickers, they are entitled to a voucher for the Express Cafe. They cover achievement, potential, fair play and social skills. The students are selected because they have completed a piece of quality school work during the previous month. With such a range of awards, each and every student has the opportunity to be recognised.

Shows curiosity and a zest for learning Takes pride in learning and has high aspirations Applies positive thinking and mindfulness Takes initiative to ensure purposeful learning and goals reached. Acts with honesty and integrity Displays a strong sense of fairness and justice Open minded and respects the dignity of others Takes responsibility for their own actions.

Sets goals that are challenging and appropriate Plans and balances time effectively to meet deadlines Is punctual and brings necessary resources to class Selects and uses technology effectively. Communicates effectively and expresses ideas Learns effectively alongside others Respects diversity and considers perspectives Works effectively in teams Is helpful, shows empathy and acts on it.

Our librarians are all fully qualified and are eager to help students with information services to help find relevant information and generally to answer any queries about the way information is organised. They work collaboratively with teachers across the curriculum to meet the information and reading needs of students. A group of students volunteer to be Student Librarians. They help and advise on the running of the library on a weekly roster and organise functions, competitions and events for students.

The library at Kristin is a place where staff and students are regular borrowers and where they come in classes, in small groups or individually to study, to read or to browse the displays and the Internet. The library webpages in the myKristin provide links to essential inquiry resources, websites that support curriculum learning and recreational reading promotions. The library welcomes students from 8am Students will gain new knowledge and understandings, skills and abilities, and attitudes, as well as build on those they already have.

At Year 7 and 8 Digital Design is fully integrated into the curriculum programme. In Years 9 and 10 Digital Design is a separate subject. Selected students are then able to choose two other option subjects of their choice. Special Features of Year 7 Digital Design Basic operating procedures are taught in unison with the curriculum to provide students with effective learning skills and to meet the demands of an increasingly computer-literate society.

Activities undertaken encourage group co-operation, initiative and personal development. Social interaction between the old and the new Kristin students in Year 7 and the building of new and existing friendships are key themes of EOTC. Structure of Classes There are six mixed-ability gender-balanced classes. Mathematics classes are organised in mixed ability groupings, which may change throughout the year.

Art The Year 7 course encourages nurturing creativity in students as well focusing on their ability to be organised and reflective. Topics and themes change from cycle to cycle and students have the opportunity to create art in both two and threedimensional forms. Students are introduced to a range of artist models and art from different cultures is discussed. The students keep a developmental workbook to document their ideas and reflections.

Students may use their laptops to create digital art, research from websites, write reflections, make videos or presentations that document their artistic journey. In addition, the students are introduced to a range of interactive art websites.

The aim is for the students to identify the uniqueness of their families and life events that have formed them and their world view. The day explores how values are formed and how they impact the way we live our lives. Dance Year 7 dance is a creative, athletic and highly collaborative course, that introduces students to the world of dance around them.

Whole class and small group activities are structured to enable students to build their confidence in a variety of fun movement styles, ranging from hip hop, street jazz, martial arts, and kapa haka. Students will learn about the elements of dance and how to choreograph original dances.

They will experience being part of a whole class performance, and create a developmental journal that captures their reflections over the course. Topics covered include: — What is dance? Drama Drama is a collaborative process that uses live people as its medium. Students will work individually and in small groups to develop performance skills. They will have an opportunity to experience a variety of theatrical concepts and forms including: — Working in role. Language and Literature In the Year 7 programme, we explore the ways in which storytelling has permeated cultures and histories around the world.

We look at the value of story and storytelling, helping to explain who we are, where we have come from and what we value. Our writing skills are focused on producing both creative and persuasive pieces, improving our use of vocabulary, and including stylistic features. Students will generally continue with their chosen language to the end of Year The language is studied following the Accelerative Integrated Methodology AIM which uses a story-based approach to learning and provides an immersion experience in the classroom.

The introduction of high-frequency vocabulary combined with the use of visual gestures accelerates oral production from an early stage. Activities completed by students include: — Lessons conducted entirely in the target language from the first day — Participating in a play in the language being studied — Completion of listening, speaking, reading and written exercises — Using a range of interactive websites to develop and practice vocabulary — Learning to appreciate and develop a respect for the culture and traditions of the language.

Health Activities are designed to identify, develop and practice skills for positive social behaviour. These skills will focus on the family and friends. Students will develop strategies to promote communication, problem-solving and conflict resolution which will strengthen self-esteem and sense of well-being.

Topics will include: — Hauora — well-being — Pubertal change. Individuals and Societies The aim of the study of Individuals and Societies in Year 7 is to encourage and enable students to develop and inquiring mind and basic research skills, whilst developing awareness and understanding of people and cultures in a variety of places and times.

This is studied through understanding related concepts. The following will be studied: — Exploring our World — history of exploration and the development and recording of maps. Leading on to general world geography and map reading skills — Scars on the Heart — how hardships of WW1 contribute to change. Mathematics and Statistics Mathematics is all around us and, in Year 7, students are encouraged to become more aware of this by learning to apply logic and reasoning in real life situations; to reflect on the usefulness of understanding relationships between numbers; to gain insight into the development of patterns.

Students will: — Discover the usefulness of understanding probability in order to have a better chance at winning a game like Cluedo — Use a range of number strategies to answer questions quickly and easily — Find patterns and relationships in natural events and learn to express these using words, symbols or rules.

Music A dynamic and exciting music programme covering performance, appreciation and composition has been developed for Year 7 students. They are catered for at their ability level and are exposed to the use of a wide range of musical skills. They will perform original works and be challenged to explore a variety of musical experiences.

Physical Education The aim of our Physical Education programme in Year 7 is: — To develop and build skills and knowledge that enable students to participate successfully across a range of different activities — Students will have a basic introduction into the importance of warm-ups and related aerobic activities, allowing students opportunities to increase base fitness levels — Striking skills utilising the driving range — Continue to develop the essential run, jump and throw skills through an athletics module — Provide opportunities to explore different movement patterns and forms.

Science In Year 7 Science the emphasis is on encouraging students to develop an inquiring mind into the scientific world through hands-on fun and meaningful investigation. Students will be introduced to all of the scientific disciplines throughout the year where they will become familiar with scientific knowledge, language and skills. Sport The one Sport lesson per 7-day cycle provides an opportunity to encourage competition across a variety of activities reinforcing and building on the Physical Education programme.

This provides a healthy competitive environment and helps reinforce the Middle School House Points competition as they compete in House groups. Technology Design Students are encouraged to become confident in using a variety of materials. They will address needs and opportunities through the use of skills and processes to solve practical design problems. This course emphasises basic technology skills and is timetabled into Materials Product Design and Food Product Design. There are two lessons per cycle in each of the six month courses.

Topics covered: — Materials Product Design — basic construction and experimenting with construction — Food Product Design — simple meals and basic nutrition. Digital technology is integrated into all curriculum areas. By the end of Year 8, students will have exposure to making a podcast, a video, a Prezzie, infomercial and using publishing techniques and creating a digital portfolio.

A major focus will be ensuring that students also regularly back up their work using various methods, such as Google Drive. Group co-operation, initiative and personal development are encouraged. Leadership opportunities, volunteering and mentoring experiences build the strength and resilience of young people, and give them access to new experiences, people and skills. Structure of Classes There are six classes of mixed ability with a balance of boys and girls.

Mathematics classes are organised in mixed ability groupings, based on test results, numeracy and classroom observations. Art The Year 8 course continues to nurture creativity using a range of topics and artistic processes. There is a focus throughout the programme of maintaining good organisational and reflective skills while also encouraging risk-taking.

Artist examples and art from different cultures are discussed, compared and contrasted. The students use a developmental workbook to organise their research, ideas and reflections throughout the process. The students may use their laptops to create digital art, research from websites, write reflections, make videos or presentations that document their artistic journey. Base religion, ethics and philosophy In Year 8 the BASE programme continues to challenge students to explore aspects of their own lives.

It starts on the first BASE day where, through fun activities, they are challenged to identify what they believe about right and wrong and the impact that their decisions have on people around them. On the second BASE day, students are encouraged to be thoughtful about how they portray themselves to other people, especially in social media. Dance Year 8 Dance is an opportunity for students to expand their experience in dance as an art form.

Students will experience the basic elements of dance, explore movement, choreograph and present their own dance sequences as well as experiencing a variety of styles. Students will explore dance in greater depth through tasks and activities with a focus on choreography.

Students will view, respond to and understand a range of dance styles from a variety of cultures and contexts. Through this collaborative exploration of performance and choreography, they will develop a class dance for performance, incorporating costumes and props. Topics covered include: — Warming up and cooling down. Drama Building on the Year 7 curriculum, Year 8 Drama is designed to give students an opportunity to develop a collaborative ethos while extending their skills in the following areas: — Creating a role.

Language and Literature During the course of the year we will develop and enrich our literacy skills through an increasing range of texts from New Zealand and overseas. Students gain an insight into moral, social, and environmental factors which are impacting teenagers and writers around the world.

Research skills are beginning to increase in complexity with students evaluating the credibility of information and sources. Language Acquisition At Year 8 students continue to study the language chosen in Year 7 following the AIM programme which provides an immersion experience. The focus remains on accelerating oral fluency in their chosen language and broadening their knowledge of high frequency vocabulary.

Students complete the following activities: — Extension of their listening, speaking, reading and writing skills — Continuation of lessons conducted in the target language — Broadening cultural understanding of their chosen language — Use of digital technology to further their understanding — Participation in a longer play conducted entirely in the language they are studying and written work based on the play.

Students will be encouraged to keep a balance in life while recognising the influences of peers, social stereotypes and lifestyle factors on personal identity and self-worth. Topics will include: — Well-being and mental health. Individuals and Societies The aim of the study of Individuals and Societies in Year 8 is to encourage and enable students to develop an inquiring mind and good research skills when investigating perspectives, values and attitudes towards the environment and society.

This is studied through the understanding of related concepts. This is also an Interdisciplinary unit, combining humanities, mathematics and English — Children in Crisis — issues surrounding children and their rights as a global concern — Mapping and Field Work — Reading, drawing and interpreting a variety of maps including orienteering activities. Mathematics and Statistics Mathematics is all around us and, in Year 8, students are encouraged to become more aware of this by learning to apply logic and reasoning in real life situations; to reflect on the usefulness of understanding relationships between numbers; to gain insight into the development of patterns.

Students will: — Observe how shapes move and turn and see how shape can be found in Maori crafts — Use mathematics to investigate how we can help save our planet — Help our school community by posing relevant and interesting questions in order to collect useful data. Music A dynamic and exciting music programme covering performance, appreciation and composition has been developed for Year 8 students.

Students will perform prepared pieces and be challenged to explore a variety of musical contexts. Year 8 students can join the Year 7 and 8 choir and the Middle School orchestra. Allowing students opportunities to increase base fitness levels — Explore and investigate the basic levels of strategic and tactical thinking in game play through hockey and touch rugby — Continue to develop the essential run, jump and throw skills through an athletics module — Provide opportunities to explore the value of cooperation, planning and teamwork.

Science The emphasis in Year 8 is on developing scientific method and observations in investigations, along with improving scientific literacy. Sport The one Sport lesson per cycle provides an opportunity to encourage competition across a variety of activities, reinforcing and building on the Physical Education programme. This provides a healthy, competitive environment and helps reinforce the Middle School House Points competition. Technology Design Students are encouraged to become confident in using a variety of materials to address needs and opportunities.

Through the use of technology skills and processes, students solve practical design problems using the design process. This course emphasises basic skills and covers areas in Food Textiles Materials from the curriculum. All courses use the design cycle as the basis of the units of work.

Option Choices All options are half-year courses. All students take a language and then make FOUR option choices, ensuring they meet the option guidelines described. Those taking two language options choose only two options from the list, ensuring that they meet the option guidelines described. All Year 9 students are required to take at least one design subject and one arts subject. Special Features of Year 9 Students are in a period of rapid physical and mental maturity.

We perform a de novo cluster analysis and compare results with the COPUS Analyzer output and identify several contrasting outcomes regarding course characterizations. Additionally, we present two ensemble clustering algorithms: 1 k -means and 2 partitioning around medoids. Both ensemble algorithms categorize our classroom observation data into one of two clusters: traditional lecture or active learning. Finally, we discuss implications of these findings for education research studies that leverage COPUS data.

These organizations highlight the benefits of active-learning pedagogies Chickering and Gamson, ; Hake, ; Crouch and Mazur, ; Ruiz-Primo et al. Despite these findings, the implementation of evidence-based teaching practices is generally not widespread in STEM classrooms Smith et al.

While professional development opportunities to train instructors in the use of these practices are widely available, there is often a disconnect between instructor perception of implementation of active-learning pedagogies and what is actually occurring in the classroom Ebert-May et al. Thus, there is value in classroom observation data that provide an objective way to identify what both the student and instructor are doing within a classroom Smith et al.

These observations give a more standardized assessment of the class compared with surveys, responses to which may be influenced by student and instructor interpretation or bias. These data can then be used in the assessment of the effectiveness of instruction strategies. A number of protocols and frameworks have been developed over the past two decades to better describe what is occurring within a higher education classroom Sawada et al.

COPUS consists of 25 distinct codes that classify instructor and student behaviors see Table 1 , taken from Smith et al. Descriptions of the individual codes in Smith et al. Due to the increasing prevalence of COPUS data collection and presentation in education research, it is important to consider how researchers analyze these data. The most common tactic is to present COPUS data in a descriptive form, highlighting particular codes of interest and often comparing the relative presence of these codes between two scenarios Smith et al.

For example, Lewin et al. Akiha et al. It is also possible to take this analysis a step further and incorporate multiple regression models to identify the impact of various course or instructor characteristics on the presence of specific classroom practices. For example, to assess the effectiveness of their professional development program, Tomkin et al.

Cluster analysis is a data-mining technique that allows researchers to cluster a set of observations into similar homogeneous groupings based on a set of features. This technique, which enables researchers to characterize a particular course based on the entirety of the collected COPUS data and identify distinct patterns of classroom behaviors present across a data set, has been used by the Stains group Lund et al.

Additionally, cluster analysis is used when researchers are in the exploratory phase of their analysis Kaufman and Rousseeuw, ; Ng and Han, and allows for identification of groups of observations when you do not have a particular response variable of interest Fisher, ; MacQueen, ; Hartigan and Wong, ; Pollard, ; Kaufman and Rousseeuw, ; Hastie et al. As a product of their cluster analysis, Stains et al. Because cluster analysis is a statistical learning algorithm that uses an unsupervised learning technique i.

In general, clustering algorithms are able to find locally optimal partitions and split the data into k clusters; new data incorporated into an existing data set often result in different clusters being identified, and thus clustering should not be used as a predictive tool Fisher, ; Hartigan, ; Hartigan and Wong, ; Wong, ; Hastie et al.

Due to this nature of cluster analysis, using an existing cluster analysis to predict the cluster that new COPUS data would fall into could then potentially incorrectly cluster that data. Mischaracterization of COPUS data could then lead to a research team drawing flawed conclusions from an analysis. In this paper, we use a novel data set from unique courses to explore whether different methods of clustering COPUS data produce contrasting outcomes.

Specifically, we address the following questions:. Do clustering results for our data set vary when using the COPUS Analyzer versus de novo cluster analysis guided by the parameters established by the Analyzer? How do de novo clustering results differ when using k -means algorithms versus partitioning around medoids PAM algorithms?

Observed courses were selected if they were the following: lecture courses excluding lab sections, discussions, and seminar courses , undergraduate courses graduate courses excluded , and courses held in rooms with capacity for 60 students or more. Descriptive information regarding the courses included in the study and the faculty instructing them can be found in Table 2.

Large enrollment was defined as a course with more than students. There were three classes of instructor based on their job titles. Active-learning certification status was bestowed on faculty who completed an active-learning instruction professional development series. We documented classroom behaviors in 2-minute intervals throughout the duration of the class sessions using the 25 COPUS codes. For each class session, we created three different data sets as previously described: 1 we used the subset of codes as described in Stains et al.

Descriptions of each can be found in Table 1. The COPUS Analyzer provides COPUS profiles that fall into one of seven clusters representing three groups of instructional styles, which are characterized as didactic, interactive, and student centered. The interactive instructional style was characterized by course periods in which instructors supplemented lecturing with other group activities or clicker questions with group work. The student-centered instructional style encompasses classes in which even larger portions of the course period were dedicated to group activities relative to the interactive instructional style.

First, because our data set was restricted to large-enrollment lecture courses, this eliminated the presence of course types e. We performed a two-sample t test for each of the 25 codes to test for a difference in the amount of time spent on a certain code for STEM and non-STEM classes and applied a Bonferroni correction to account for multiple testing settings.

These data are presented in Supplemental Table S2. Additionally, as it is not our goal to make pedagogical conclusions or recommendations regarding the specific courses present in our data set, but instead to use these data to make conclusions about methodologies for COPUS data analysis, we felt it was appropriate to include both STEM and non-STEM courses.

Each course included in the study was observed twice within a quarter. Instructors were notified at the beginning of each academic term that they would be observed during two lecture periods. Dates were assigned based on observer availability without any prior knowledge regarding what would occur in that lecture period.

Observations were rescheduled only if the originally selected date was an exam day. Instructor and student codes were collected for each class period and then summarized as percent of 2-minute intervals during which a given code was occurring. COPUS data for the two classroom observations for a given course were averaged before data analysis. To characterize the types of instructional practices observed in our course data set, we performed a variety of cluster analyses and compared them with the COPUS profiles resulting from the COPUS Analyzer www.

To address research question 1, we compared the COPUS profiles to a de novo cluster analysis using the same restrictions established by Stains et al. To address research question 2, we performed three separate k -means algorithms: one on the Analyzer codes group worksheet, group other, group clicker, student question, work 1-on-1, clicker question, teacher question, and lecture , one on the collapsed codes instructor presenting, instructor guiding, instructor administration, instructor other, student receiving, students talking to the class, students working, and student other , and one on all 25 COPUS codes.

To partition the data into distinct groups wherein the observations within the subgroups are quite similar and the observations in different clusters are quite different, we used k -means clustering. This is a simple and elegant approach for partitioning a data set into k distinct, non-overlapping clusters James et al. Among all classroom observations, there is heterogeneity across the observations, and we used clustering to find distinct homogeneous subgroups among the COPUS observations.

To specify the desired number of clusters, k , we used the NbClust package in R Charrad et al. This R package determines the relevant number of clusters in a data set by performing 30 different indices see Supplemental Table S3 for a complete list while varying the cluster size and distance measures.

For further discussion of the indices, see Charrad et al. After determining the relevant number of clusters, the k -means algorithm will assign each observation to exactly one of the k clusters. That is, k -means clustering solves the following minimization problem:. The algorithm for k -means clustering is as follows: 1 Randomly assign a number, from 1 to k to each of the observations. These serve as initial cluster assignments for the observations.

The k th cluster centroid is the vector of the p feature means for the observations in the k th cluster. We used 20 random starts for the k -means clustering algorithm, because it has been suggested that the number of random starts should be greater than 1 Gareth et al. PAM is a more robust method to cluster data compared with the more commonly used k -means algorithm Kaufman and Rousseeuw , ; Ng and Han, The main difference between the k -means algorithm and the PAM algorithm is that a data point within the cluster defines the medoid in the PAM algorithm, whereas the cluster center is the average of all the data points in k -means.

The algorithm follows the work of Conrad and Bailey and uses the cluster Maechler et al. RF dissimilarity measures have been successfully used in several unsupervised learning tasks Liu et al. RF is a modern statistical learning method that involves a collection or ensemble of classification trees. Each tree is grown based on a different bootstrap sample of the original data. For the RF, each tree votes for a class, and the final prediction for each observation is based on the majority rule.

In unsupervised RF, synthetic classes are randomly generated, and the trees are grown. The proximity of the samples can be measured, and the proximity matrix is constructed. In the second step of the PAM analysis, the clustering is found by assigning each observation to the nearest medoid with the goal of finding k representative objects that minimize the sum of the dissimilarities of the observations to their closest representative object Maechler et al. To determine the relevant number of clusters, we used the Silhouette index Rousseeuw, We applied the ensemble method Strehl and Ghosh, , using the NbClust package in R to cluster our data using different subsets of the COPUS codes to run multiple clusterings and then combine the information of the individual algorithms.

Use of the ensemble of algorithms gives us a robust cluster assignment, as our cluster assignment does not rely on a single choice of variables to input into the cluster, and the number of clusters does not rely on a single choice for determining the best number of clusters. For classification, an ensemble average will perform better than a single classifier Moon et al. A handful of applications of ensemble algorithms can be found in the educational literature Kotsiantis et al.

The k -means ensemble and PAM ensemble are based on individual algorithms that relied on different transformations of the COPUS codes: 1 we used the subset of codes described in Stains et al. The final k -means clustering ensemble gives each of the three individual k -means algorithms a vote for the final cluster.

To characterize the types of instructional practices observed in our course data set, we performed a de novo cluster analysis. And the observations falling under cluster 7 student-centered instructional style with the COPUS Analyzer were almost evenly split in the de novo clustering.

The rows indicate the number of courses that clustered into the seven categories of instruction as defined by the COPUS Analyzer. The columns represent the clustering of our data into seven undefined categories from our k -means analysis. Similarities and differences in the clustering are indicated. For example, of the 77 courses that the COPUS Analyzer sorted into cluster 1, 51 also clustered together with the de novo clustering. We performed k -means clustering with the data transformed into the Analyzer codes Stains et al.

In each case, the optimal number of clusters for our data was two according to majority rule; Table 4 , as opposed to the seven identified from the Stains et al. Eighty-six percent of our classroom observations had perfect agreement across the individual algorithms. Each row illustrates the number of courses that were clustered into either cluster 1 or 2 based on the different code parameters. For example, 20 courses were sorted into cluster 1 using the Analyzer codes, two using the collapsed codes, and one using all codes.

Perfect agreement of the algorithms is shown in bold. The percent indicates the percent of our sample that was found in each cluster. Radar plots highlighting the resulting clusters A, cluster 1: traditional lecture; and B, cluster 2: active learning from the course COPUS data set. Red lines indicate the average fraction of 2-minute intervals a given code was selected across the entire data set.

Green lines indicate the average fraction of 2-minute intervals a given code was selected only for the courses that fall within that cluster. The collapsed codes Smith et al. I, instructor behaviors; S, student behaviors. Cluster 1 can be characterized as a traditional lecture cluster, primarily driven by the Instructor Presenting and Student Receiving codes.

Another means to identify the most appropriate number of clusters for our data set is the robust clustering algorithm PAM. PAM also identified two as the optimal number of clusters using both the Analyzer codes and all 25 codes, with similar traditional lecture and active-learning profiles as previously identified from the k -means clustering.

The cluster assignment for our data that arose from the three different individual algorithms Analyzer codes, collapsed codes, and all codes and the vote of the ensemble are presented in Table 6. Fifty-seven percent of our classroom observations had perfect agreement among the three individual algorithms.

Similar to Table 4 , we indicate the number of courses that were clustered in a particular pattern using the Analyzer codes, collapsed codes, or all COPUS codes. The comparison of the PAM ensemble clustering and the k -means ensemble clustering is presented in Table 7. Through the more robust PAM clustering, we were able to identify more classes that clustered in the active-learning instruction profile.

The increased push to improve undergraduate STEM education has led to greater interest in collecting independent not from the student or instructor perspective classroom data to describe what is occurring in the classroom, as evidenced by a number of recent COPUS-using publications Liu et al.

There are several arenas in which COPUS data can be valuable: for supporting faculty merit and promotion cases as suggested by Smith et al. Thus, it becomes increasingly important that we analyze such data in a rigorous manner following best practices established by other fields. Typical ways that COPUS data are presented in published literature include: descriptively, to highlight the average presence of various codes among different instructor populations Smith et al.

Furthermore, cluster analysis can also be combined with the regression analyses used in works like Tomkin et al. This would allow one to identify variables that correlate with a course being characterized as falling within an active-learning cluster, for example. In future work, we would like to identify course-level data e.

Before discussing our findings, we acknowledge that this work contains certain limitations. First, while our data set consists of COPUS observations from courses, these were collected at a single institution, which may represent course experiences that are unique to this setting. Second, as COPUS data collection is labor intensive, we are making general conclusions regarding a course based on data from only a fraction of the meeting periods, a limitation less prevalent for other classroom observation protocols Owens et al.

In this work, we used cluster analysis as a statistical learning algorithm to describe how our data are related across the COPUS codes. As clustering algorithms are not meant to be predictive, we suggest that researchers perform a de novo cluster analysis with each new data set collected, and when doing so, use an ensemble of clusters, as the ensemble improves the accuracy over a single classifier Moon et al.

Clusters can change with new data, are affected if there are outliers in the data, and are dependent on the choice of variables included in the analysis. The information from different clusterings does not need to be thrown out; the cluster assignments from previous and current clusterings can be combined by methods presented in Strehl and Ghosh or by using an ensemble combining the information from the different clustering, as in this paper. Another approach we believe may be beneficial is latent class analysis LCA clustering techniques and mixture distribution models Hagenaars and McCutcheon, ; Lubke and Luningham, , which is a theory-driven approach, as opposed to the distance-based approaches of this paper PAM and k -means.

Many education research studies Vermunt and Magidson, ; Talavera and Gaudioso, ; Maull et al. Brusco et al. In addition to its methodological implications, we feel this work also highlights the value of cross-disciplinary research. With the push to decrease silos often seen in discipline-based education research fields Henderson et al. Collaborations can be formed for specific research projects, but can also be expanded to create research teams aimed at viewing existing problems in the field through new lenses and to train the next generation of researchers to have expertise spanning multiple fields.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. David Feldon, Monitoring Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author s. It is available to the public under an Attribution—Noncommercial—Share Alike 3. Classroom Observation Data-Collection and Analysis A number of protocols and frameworks have been developed over the past two decades to better describe what is occurring within a higher education classroom Sawada et al.

COPUS code description. Receiving Answer question Student answering a question posed by the instructor with rest of class listening Student. AnQ — S. Talking Asking Student asking question Student. SQ Student. Talking Whole class Engaged in whole-class discussion by offering explanations, opinion, judgment, etc. Talking Presentation Presentation by student s Student. Ind — S. Working Student codes Clicker Discuss clicker question in groups of two or more students Student.

CG Student. Working Worksheet Working in groups on worksheet activity Student. WG Student. Working Other group Other assigned group activity, such as responding to instructor question Student. OG Student. Working Prediction Making a prediction about the outcome of demo or experiment Student. Prd — S. Working Waiting Waiting instructor late, working on fixing AV problems, instructor otherwise occupied, etc. Other Other Other: explained in comments Student.

Other — S. Other Lecturing Lecturing presenting content, deriving mathematical results, presenting a problem solution, etc. Lec Instructor. Lec I. Presenting Writing Real-time writing on board, doc. RtW — I. FUp — I. Guiding Pose question Posing non-clicker question to students nonrhetorical Instructor. PQ Instructor. Guiding Instructor codes Clicker question Asking a clicker question mark the entire time the instructor is using a clicker question, not just when first asked Instructor.

CQ Instructor. Guiding Answer question Listening to and answering student questions with entire class listening Instructor. AnQ — I. Guiding One on one One-on-one extended discussion with one or a few individuals, not paying attention to the rest of the class can be along with MG or AnQ Instructor. Guiding Administration Administration assign homework, return tests, etc.

THESIS TOPICS IN EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP

Tasks are set by teachers throughout the course of the programme and are assessed internally in the school. IB Learner Profile The aim of all IB programmes is to develop internationallyminded people who, recognising their common humanity and shared guardianship of the planet, help to create a better and more peaceful world. IB learners strive to be:. A clear, positive approach to academic honesty as good practice is imperative to ensure that: — Teacher and student integrity is promoted through sound teaching and learning practice — Student research is properly conducted — Assessment is authentic — Intellectual property and copyright regulations of New Zealand are upheld.

The aim of this academic honesty policy is to: — Promote the principles and practices of academic honesty to ensure that Middle School students and teachers are fully aware of these — Ensure that students do not have unfair advantage over other students through academically dishonest practices such as collusion, duplication, plagiarism or assessment misconduct — Ensure that the principles and practices of academic honesty are explicitly taught — Detail the opportunities which students receive to learn about and practice academic honesty — Define the specific skills and knowledge Middle School students need, to practice academic honesty — Outline the procedures to be taken when malpractice or infringement may have occurred — To provide a coherent approach which is aligned with the Junior and Senior Schools.

How are students assessed? Teachers organise continuous assessment over the course of the programme taking account of specified criteria that correspond to the objectives for each subject. The MYP offers a criterion-referenced model of assessment. Teachers are responsible for structuring varied and valid assessment tasks that allow students to demonstrate achievement according to the required objectives within each subject group.

These may include: — Open-ended, problem-solving activities and investigations — Organised debates — Hands-on experimentation — Analysis — Reflection Assessment strategies, both quantitative and qualitative, provide feedback on the thinking processes as well as the finished piece of work. There is also an emphasis on self-assessment and peer-assessment within the programme. MYP Assessment Criteria Each subject area has a set of unique criteria that are used to assess student work. The maximum grade awarded for each criteria is 8.

This is a major project with a focus of their choice, completed under the close guidance of a supervising teacher. This is a rewarding opportunity for Year 10 students to undertake a service and action project that inspires them, demonstrates their abilities as good learners, and practically facilitates social responsibility. The Community Project offers students the opportunity to collaborate, if they choose, to complete their inquiry and service with one or two other students.

Each year the Community Project resource is published as a complete online guide for students and their parents. An information evening is also held in Term 1 for parents of Year 10 students. The projects culminate with a presentation to an audience of peers, teachers and parents.

Curriculum Integration Wherever possible, the learning programmes incorporate curriculum integration. Curriculum Staffing To assist in the implementation and co-ordination of MYP, key staff members are responsible for leadership roles in areas of curriculum. These roles include: Assistant Principal Teaching and Learning — responsible for all aspects of. Staff acknowledge that Middle School students require a balanced and healthy lifestyle which involves academic, sport, culture, social life and family.

Therefore, the amount of time provided for homework will reflect this balance. Lillico, Homework should be a balance of: 1. Physical activity Revisiting what is learned at school Cultural pursuits Learning household tasks. Homework enables our students to become independent learners. Homework will: — Be introduced and explained by teachers who are mindful and supportive of the fact that students and their families lead busy lives.

Feedback — All work should be acknowledged by the teacher in writing tick, comment etc or verbally to the student — Where possible and appropriate, precise feedback should be provided relating to what the student needs to do to effect improvement — Staff will monitor students who do not complete required homework and alert the Dean about any students they have concerns about — If a student is under-performing, it is required of staff that they take action. Talk to the student, talk to the parents and talk to the Dean.

This could include such things as: — Physical activity — Cultural pursuits — Reading for pleasure. Year 8 Home Room teachers monitor all homework. Year 9 No student in Year 9 will exceed 3 hours of homework per week. This could include such things as: — Physical activity — Cultural pursuits — Reading for pleasure — Community Project. The Assessment Calendar is a means by which students are supported with their personal planning and organisation so that not only can their assessments be completed on time but also to a high standard.

Homework Club The Middle School Homework Club runs three times a week and provides the opportunity for students to practise good homework habits and to gain support with specific subjects and areas of difficulty. Tests and Examinations — Years assessments are integrated into the curriculum and therefore there are no examinations.

Every student needs to have a relationship with at least one adult that is characterised by warmth, concern, understanding and openness. Each student is placed in a tutor group whereby, on a daily basis, they meet with the same student group and tutor teacher for the calendar year. Each year level has a Dean, who has overall responsibility for the year group and works with all staff involved with students at that year level. Each Dean begins with a group at Year 7 and moves up each year with the group to the next level.

The Guidance Counselors work with students and their families to provide support for learning, behavioural and emotional issues. Communication with Parents A close relationship between home and school is essential for student success. Parents are urged to contact the year-level Dean about any matter affecting the welfare of their child. If in doubt parents should phone or email. Rewarding Student Achievement We place the highest priority on ensuring that not only are our students given the opportunity to succeed in a wide range of activities but that their achievements in these activities are acknowledged.

These go into the draw for gift vouchers. When students collect 20 stickers, they are entitled to a voucher for the Express Cafe. They cover achievement, potential, fair play and social skills. The students are selected because they have completed a piece of quality school work during the previous month. With such a range of awards, each and every student has the opportunity to be recognised. Shows curiosity and a zest for learning Takes pride in learning and has high aspirations Applies positive thinking and mindfulness Takes initiative to ensure purposeful learning and goals reached.

Acts with honesty and integrity Displays a strong sense of fairness and justice Open minded and respects the dignity of others Takes responsibility for their own actions. Sets goals that are challenging and appropriate Plans and balances time effectively to meet deadlines Is punctual and brings necessary resources to class Selects and uses technology effectively.

Communicates effectively and expresses ideas Learns effectively alongside others Respects diversity and considers perspectives Works effectively in teams Is helpful, shows empathy and acts on it. Our librarians are all fully qualified and are eager to help students with information services to help find relevant information and generally to answer any queries about the way information is organised.

They work collaboratively with teachers across the curriculum to meet the information and reading needs of students. A group of students volunteer to be Student Librarians. They help and advise on the running of the library on a weekly roster and organise functions, competitions and events for students.

The library at Kristin is a place where staff and students are regular borrowers and where they come in classes, in small groups or individually to study, to read or to browse the displays and the Internet. The library webpages in the myKristin provide links to essential inquiry resources, websites that support curriculum learning and recreational reading promotions. The library welcomes students from 8am Students will gain new knowledge and understandings, skills and abilities, and attitudes, as well as build on those they already have.

At Year 7 and 8 Digital Design is fully integrated into the curriculum programme. In Years 9 and 10 Digital Design is a separate subject. Selected students are then able to choose two other option subjects of their choice. Special Features of Year 7 Digital Design Basic operating procedures are taught in unison with the curriculum to provide students with effective learning skills and to meet the demands of an increasingly computer-literate society. Activities undertaken encourage group co-operation, initiative and personal development.

Social interaction between the old and the new Kristin students in Year 7 and the building of new and existing friendships are key themes of EOTC. Structure of Classes There are six mixed-ability gender-balanced classes. Mathematics classes are organised in mixed ability groupings, which may change throughout the year.

Art The Year 7 course encourages nurturing creativity in students as well focusing on their ability to be organised and reflective. Topics and themes change from cycle to cycle and students have the opportunity to create art in both two and threedimensional forms. Students are introduced to a range of artist models and art from different cultures is discussed.

The students keep a developmental workbook to document their ideas and reflections. Students may use their laptops to create digital art, research from websites, write reflections, make videos or presentations that document their artistic journey. In addition, the students are introduced to a range of interactive art websites.

The aim is for the students to identify the uniqueness of their families and life events that have formed them and their world view. The day explores how values are formed and how they impact the way we live our lives.

Dance Year 7 dance is a creative, athletic and highly collaborative course, that introduces students to the world of dance around them. Whole class and small group activities are structured to enable students to build their confidence in a variety of fun movement styles, ranging from hip hop, street jazz, martial arts, and kapa haka.

Students will learn about the elements of dance and how to choreograph original dances. They will experience being part of a whole class performance, and create a developmental journal that captures their reflections over the course. Topics covered include: — What is dance?

Drama Drama is a collaborative process that uses live people as its medium. Students will work individually and in small groups to develop performance skills. They will have an opportunity to experience a variety of theatrical concepts and forms including: — Working in role.

Language and Literature In the Year 7 programme, we explore the ways in which storytelling has permeated cultures and histories around the world. We look at the value of story and storytelling, helping to explain who we are, where we have come from and what we value.

Our writing skills are focused on producing both creative and persuasive pieces, improving our use of vocabulary, and including stylistic features. Students will generally continue with their chosen language to the end of Year The language is studied following the Accelerative Integrated Methodology AIM which uses a story-based approach to learning and provides an immersion experience in the classroom. The introduction of high-frequency vocabulary combined with the use of visual gestures accelerates oral production from an early stage.

Activities completed by students include: — Lessons conducted entirely in the target language from the first day — Participating in a play in the language being studied — Completion of listening, speaking, reading and written exercises — Using a range of interactive websites to develop and practice vocabulary — Learning to appreciate and develop a respect for the culture and traditions of the language.

Health Activities are designed to identify, develop and practice skills for positive social behaviour. These skills will focus on the family and friends. Students will develop strategies to promote communication, problem-solving and conflict resolution which will strengthen self-esteem and sense of well-being.

Topics will include: — Hauora — well-being — Pubertal change. Individuals and Societies The aim of the study of Individuals and Societies in Year 7 is to encourage and enable students to develop and inquiring mind and basic research skills, whilst developing awareness and understanding of people and cultures in a variety of places and times. This is studied through understanding related concepts.

The following will be studied: — Exploring our World — history of exploration and the development and recording of maps. Leading on to general world geography and map reading skills — Scars on the Heart — how hardships of WW1 contribute to change. Mathematics and Statistics Mathematics is all around us and, in Year 7, students are encouraged to become more aware of this by learning to apply logic and reasoning in real life situations; to reflect on the usefulness of understanding relationships between numbers; to gain insight into the development of patterns.

Students will: — Discover the usefulness of understanding probability in order to have a better chance at winning a game like Cluedo — Use a range of number strategies to answer questions quickly and easily — Find patterns and relationships in natural events and learn to express these using words, symbols or rules.

Music A dynamic and exciting music programme covering performance, appreciation and composition has been developed for Year 7 students. They are catered for at their ability level and are exposed to the use of a wide range of musical skills. They will perform original works and be challenged to explore a variety of musical experiences.

Physical Education The aim of our Physical Education programme in Year 7 is: — To develop and build skills and knowledge that enable students to participate successfully across a range of different activities — Students will have a basic introduction into the importance of warm-ups and related aerobic activities, allowing students opportunities to increase base fitness levels — Striking skills utilising the driving range — Continue to develop the essential run, jump and throw skills through an athletics module — Provide opportunities to explore different movement patterns and forms.

Science In Year 7 Science the emphasis is on encouraging students to develop an inquiring mind into the scientific world through hands-on fun and meaningful investigation. Students will be introduced to all of the scientific disciplines throughout the year where they will become familiar with scientific knowledge, language and skills. Sport The one Sport lesson per 7-day cycle provides an opportunity to encourage competition across a variety of activities reinforcing and building on the Physical Education programme.

This provides a healthy competitive environment and helps reinforce the Middle School House Points competition as they compete in House groups. Technology Design Students are encouraged to become confident in using a variety of materials. They will address needs and opportunities through the use of skills and processes to solve practical design problems.

This course emphasises basic technology skills and is timetabled into Materials Product Design and Food Product Design. There are two lessons per cycle in each of the six month courses. Topics covered: — Materials Product Design — basic construction and experimenting with construction — Food Product Design — simple meals and basic nutrition. Digital technology is integrated into all curriculum areas. By the end of Year 8, students will have exposure to making a podcast, a video, a Prezzie, infomercial and using publishing techniques and creating a digital portfolio.

A major focus will be ensuring that students also regularly back up their work using various methods, such as Google Drive. Group co-operation, initiative and personal development are encouraged. Leadership opportunities, volunteering and mentoring experiences build the strength and resilience of young people, and give them access to new experiences, people and skills.

Structure of Classes There are six classes of mixed ability with a balance of boys and girls. Mathematics classes are organised in mixed ability groupings, based on test results, numeracy and classroom observations. Art The Year 8 course continues to nurture creativity using a range of topics and artistic processes.

There is a focus throughout the programme of maintaining good organisational and reflective skills while also encouraging risk-taking. Artist examples and art from different cultures are discussed, compared and contrasted. The students use a developmental workbook to organise their research, ideas and reflections throughout the process. The students may use their laptops to create digital art, research from websites, write reflections, make videos or presentations that document their artistic journey.

Base religion, ethics and philosophy In Year 8 the BASE programme continues to challenge students to explore aspects of their own lives. It starts on the first BASE day where, through fun activities, they are challenged to identify what they believe about right and wrong and the impact that their decisions have on people around them. On the second BASE day, students are encouraged to be thoughtful about how they portray themselves to other people, especially in social media.

Dance Year 8 Dance is an opportunity for students to expand their experience in dance as an art form. Students will experience the basic elements of dance, explore movement, choreograph and present their own dance sequences as well as experiencing a variety of styles. Students will explore dance in greater depth through tasks and activities with a focus on choreography. Students will view, respond to and understand a range of dance styles from a variety of cultures and contexts.

Through this collaborative exploration of performance and choreography, they will develop a class dance for performance, incorporating costumes and props. Topics covered include: — Warming up and cooling down. Drama Building on the Year 7 curriculum, Year 8 Drama is designed to give students an opportunity to develop a collaborative ethos while extending their skills in the following areas: — Creating a role.

Language and Literature During the course of the year we will develop and enrich our literacy skills through an increasing range of texts from New Zealand and overseas. Students gain an insight into moral, social, and environmental factors which are impacting teenagers and writers around the world. Research skills are beginning to increase in complexity with students evaluating the credibility of information and sources.

Language Acquisition At Year 8 students continue to study the language chosen in Year 7 following the AIM programme which provides an immersion experience. The focus remains on accelerating oral fluency in their chosen language and broadening their knowledge of high frequency vocabulary. Students complete the following activities: — Extension of their listening, speaking, reading and writing skills — Continuation of lessons conducted in the target language — Broadening cultural understanding of their chosen language — Use of digital technology to further their understanding — Participation in a longer play conducted entirely in the language they are studying and written work based on the play.

Students will be encouraged to keep a balance in life while recognising the influences of peers, social stereotypes and lifestyle factors on personal identity and self-worth. Topics will include: — Well-being and mental health. Individuals and Societies The aim of the study of Individuals and Societies in Year 8 is to encourage and enable students to develop an inquiring mind and good research skills when investigating perspectives, values and attitudes towards the environment and society.

This is studied through the understanding of related concepts. This is also an Interdisciplinary unit, combining humanities, mathematics and English — Children in Crisis — issues surrounding children and their rights as a global concern — Mapping and Field Work — Reading, drawing and interpreting a variety of maps including orienteering activities. Mathematics and Statistics Mathematics is all around us and, in Year 8, students are encouraged to become more aware of this by learning to apply logic and reasoning in real life situations; to reflect on the usefulness of understanding relationships between numbers; to gain insight into the development of patterns.

Students will: — Observe how shapes move and turn and see how shape can be found in Maori crafts — Use mathematics to investigate how we can help save our planet — Help our school community by posing relevant and interesting questions in order to collect useful data. Music A dynamic and exciting music programme covering performance, appreciation and composition has been developed for Year 8 students. Students will perform prepared pieces and be challenged to explore a variety of musical contexts.

Year 8 students can join the Year 7 and 8 choir and the Middle School orchestra. Allowing students opportunities to increase base fitness levels — Explore and investigate the basic levels of strategic and tactical thinking in game play through hockey and touch rugby — Continue to develop the essential run, jump and throw skills through an athletics module — Provide opportunities to explore the value of cooperation, planning and teamwork.

Science The emphasis in Year 8 is on developing scientific method and observations in investigations, along with improving scientific literacy. Sport The one Sport lesson per cycle provides an opportunity to encourage competition across a variety of activities, reinforcing and building on the Physical Education programme. This provides a healthy, competitive environment and helps reinforce the Middle School House Points competition.

Technology Design Students are encouraged to become confident in using a variety of materials to address needs and opportunities. Through the use of technology skills and processes, students solve practical design problems using the design process. This course emphasises basic skills and covers areas in Food Textiles Materials from the curriculum. All courses use the design cycle as the basis of the units of work. Option Choices All options are half-year courses. All students take a language and then make FOUR option choices, ensuring they meet the option guidelines described.

Those taking two language options choose only two options from the list, ensuring that they meet the option guidelines described. All Year 9 students are required to take at least one design subject and one arts subject. Special Features of Year 9 Students are in a period of rapid physical and mental maturity. We recognise the need to give students every assistance to cope with this important period of transition in their lives. A number of new students also enter the school at this time; therefore a key goal is to provide new students with a welcoming introduction to the school.

The development of all Year 9 students is ensured through: — A tutor system allowing close support for student progress in all areas — A challenging camp, allowing for development of personal responsibility — A buddy system for students new to Kristin. Pastoral Care It is very important that students receive support, encouragement and advice in academic, emotional, social and spiritual areas.

To this end, students take part in the Year 9 Pastoral Care programme. This takes place within the teaching day and covers areas such as:. Year 9 have two Pastoral Care periods per teaching cycle. Students alternate between assembling as a House or working with their Pastoral Care teacher.

The selected nine students will learn how to use the sophisticated Canon video equipment, green screen and video editing equipment. They will experience three intense days of filming in and around Auckland. Sports Academy Programme In a selected number of students will have the opportunity to develop their sporting prowess, as well as develop their core strength and movement competency, within the Year 9 Sports Academy class.

The class of will be limited to between 18 - 20 students who play for Kristin in our main team sports. Students with a passion for sport outside of the main team sports will be welcome if space permits. In partnership with AUT Millennium and Athlete Development, students will have five periods per seven day cycle as a subject option within the curriculum. Timetable implications for those selected for the Sports Academy option:.

Selected students are then able to choose two other option subjects of their choice — Due to the complexity of timetables and option lines, there is the possibility that some students will not be able to take some of their chosen options.

They will then need to consider other option subjects — Students will be tested on speed, power, strength and fitness yoyo and individualised training programmes will then be developed — All students will be retested thorough each term or 8-week training period — Benchmarks and targets will be set and students are expected to reach these. Access to sports testing through the AUT Millennium will also feature in the programme — The emphasis will be on building from within Kristin Sport, students who will go on and represent Kristin at first team level.

This pathway, will ensure Kristin is recognised as a school, with a sports programme prepared to challenge and motivate our own students in their chosen sport. On their first BASE day, they are taken on a tour of places of worship where the focus is on symbols and rituals that express what the religions believe about life and how they interpret the realities of life.

In the second BASE day, students are drawn to how they see life, their world view. This is done by asking students to consider where they find meaning and purpose in life. Language and Literature In the Year 9 programme, we explore the ways in which societal issues are represented through a range of texts.

We look not only what writers have to say about the big issues which confront society but also how these texts challenge the thinking and actions of the reader. A literature study is undertaken by every student, which aims to expand the boundaries of what the student is thinking about. Language Acquisition All students continue to study their language chosen at Year 7. In special circumstances they may change their language choice with the permission of the Principal and Assistant Principal Teaching and Learning.

New students to Kristin study a language from a choice of Beginning Chinese, French or Spanish until the end of Year These beginning classes are offered at the discretion of the Principal of the Middle School and are subject to numbers. Activities in Year 9 include: — Intensive oral practice with a native speaker — Use of a range of digital media including videos, audio files and interactive websites to develop understanding and vocabulary — Developing an appreciation and respect for another culture — The study of differences between cultures including food and daily routines — Continued development in listening, reading, speaking and writing skills.

Health Students will learn skills, knowledge, strategies or managing challenges in everyday life and their relationships with others. They will make choices relating their individual wellbeing which will include food and physical activities to ensure they have a healthy, happy and fulfilling life. Topics will include: — Mental health and hauora. Individuals and Societies The aim of the study of Individuals and Societies in Year 9 is to encourage and enable students to develop an inquiring mind and effective research skill when investigating perspectives, values and attitudes towards the environment and society in a variety of places and time.

They are encouraged to see and make connections, both within and across the strands covered, giving plausible justification for their arguments. Students will among other tasks : — Become familiar with the everyday arithmetic of financial matters — Develop a deeper understanding of probability in order to make relevant predictions and give helpful advice to the community — Understand mathematical relationships by being able to interpret graphs and symbols.

Science In Year 9, students continue to develop their understanding of the scientific process and how science influences our lives at a local and global level. Appropriate contexts and learning experiences are used to help students understand the key concepts and ideas.

Students reflect on the issue of the global water crisis and look at ways that clean fresh water can be accessed by all — Plantastic — a focus on the importance of plants on our planet. Students look at all aspects of the plant from seed growth to providing us with food for our table — Growing Up — a study into the scientific processes of adolescence and the nutrition needed to fuel a growing body — Fun Park Physics — a focus on how forces and energy are used to thrill us.

Art The Year 9 course is an optional course for students where they are encouraged to become open-minded and knowledgeable about art. Again, their natural creativity is encouraged. Artist models and art from different cultures are discussed, compared and contrasted. Students are also encouraged to begin looking at the world around them and to investigate galleries and artistic styles in more depth.

The students continue to use a developmental workbook and their laptop to document their research, ideas and reflections. Consumer Economics This course provides students with an understanding of fundamental economic concepts, a broad appreciation of how markets work and the skills and knowledge to be discerning consumers.

Within the global context of Fairness and Development, students are introduced to the concepts of scarcity, inequality, choice and consumption. They are encouraged to analyse the economic choices they may and to justify potential consumer decisions appropriate to their age. Dance The Year 9 Dance programme is an introductory course aimed at students of all abilities and experience.

Students sample a diverse range of dance styles, discover tools to create imaginative and original dances and learn how to perform confidently on stage. There is a particular emphasis on experimentation and learning to take artistic risks through collaborative and structured group activities. The course complements performance skills learned in dance lessons outside of school. The curriculum covers: — What is Dance?

Digital Design This DT programme is a dynamic and varied half-year optional course. Building and expanding on their ICT skill base, students will explore some of the diverse aspects of IT and apply these in practical, engaging, creative mediums. Website Design and Production — build a website that develops a product or solution. Animation — Rich media and animation can improve digital communication.

Leads to: Year 10 Digital Technology curriculum. Drama A dynamic and physical half-year course designed to encourage students to be creative and explore real life contexts through drama. This class is for those who are both passionate and experienced in theatre and those who simply want to work physically in a classroom without desks. Classes are practical and students develop confidence and performance skills whilst working in small group and full class workshops.

Assessment is based on developing performance skills, collaboration and teamwork as well as a developmental journal, which documents their ideas and reflections over the unit and their performances. The course includes: — Working with Scripts — Devising — creating their own performances — Theatre Form — exploring different ways of making theatre At the discretion of the Year 9 Drama teacher, opportunities are available for extra performances in Deans and Middle School Assemblies.

Parents are also welcomed into the classroom for performance periods. Students are also encouraged to become involved in the Middle School Production as either cast or crew. Leads to: Year 10 Drama. Future Problem Solving FPS Future Problem Solving is an exciting, academically challenging programme which enables students to develop critical and creative thinking, communication skills, problem solving, research skills, team skills and time management.

Students need to be motivated learners with sophisticated critical reading skills, an interest in creative thinking and digital technology research, and be prepared to be an effective team member, playing an integral part in group decision-making. Visual Design This is an introductory course that develops an understanding of visual communication. The curriculum covers: — Sketching and rendering techniques — 2D and 3D drawing using instruments — Computer graphics. Music This is a general music course for students of all abilities.

The emphasis is on practical involvement and students who already play instruments are given ample opportunity to use them in groups or as a whole class. The curriculum covers: — Solo and group performance. Students also have the opportunity to: — Learn a musical instrument through the itinerant music scheme — Join extracurricular groups, e. Outdoor Education The Year 9 Outdoor Education course is a comprehensive introductory programme designed to build foundations for a future of enjoying the great outdoors.

The course aims to enhance opportunities for examining, theorising, experiencing, and applying processes of learning in the outdoors through adventure, challenge, environmental sustainability and leadership opportunities. There is a commitment to an off campus experience involving 3 days out and an overnight camp. Exploring the recreational opportunities and management within these wilderness environments — Skills: Abseiling school wall, Waitakere case study, plan, implement and review a day out in a regional park with family — Key Experience: Day out Canyoning, Waitakeres.

Community service projects of rubbish collections and tree plantings. Sport Studies This course is aimed at all students who enjoy physical activity in their learning and like a variety of sports and challenges. Trips to different Auckland sports venues keep motivation high and link students to the community. Trips include rock-climbing, ice hockey, trampolining and athletics. The students will be required to keep a journal reflection of their activities and will have a variety of assessments each term.

Topics covered include: — Sport as a basis for a healthy lifestyle — Anatomy — Learning how to learn and — Sports issues and world and using thinking tools local issues — Critical and creative thinking. Both courses extend the skills and knowledge taught in Year 7 and 8 and is a good lead into Year Students will choose from the following:. Materials Product Design In Materials Product Design students complete two diverse units of work as follows: — CO2 Dragsters — in this unit, students design and make a CO2 dragster to race against their peers.

They may also enter their design into a national competition. The unit has a strong focus on scientific investigation, evaluation and testing of performance factors. Students also produce a display box for their pendant and an additional copper ring. This jewellery unit has a strong focus on aesthetic design and developing skills with a diverse selection of materials and processes. They will learn about their nutritional needs and then prepare them some frozen meals.

Option Choices Two choices are made. Each of these subjects is a full-year course. Due to option blocking on the timetable, students may not always be allocated to their first choice of subject. Features — Completion of the IB Community Project — An appropriately increased level of academic rigor is expected of students at Year 10 as they look towards the Senior School and the greater number of external examinations — Students should regard the curriculum at school as one encompassing all areas of school life - academic, social, sporting, cultural and service to others — Students who involve themselves positively in all areas of their school life will benefit enormously from the Year 10 experience — Students are expected to have good academic work habits, both in school and at home — Many opportunities for leadership — Students are encouraged to develop an enthusiastic approach, and to seize all opportunities — Students have the opportunity to get involved in the Duke of Edinburgh scheme.

Leadership Leadership is an essential and integral part of the Year 10 programme at Kristin. All Year 10 students are provided with training and given the opportunity to join a leadership team. Leaders are responsible for organising many Middle School events and make shared decisions about the future development of the school. Student Exchanges Year 10 students may apply to spend up to six weeks in one of our exchange schools in either Australia or France. This is a major piece of work in a subject of their choice, completed under the close guidance of a supervising teacher.

Each year the Community Project Resource is published as a complete online guide for students and their parents. BASE religion, ethics and philosophy In the Year 10 BASE programme students are encouraged to challenge their view of the world by exploring first the concept that life may not always be fair, but still very good. In doing this students discuss the concept of suffering and ways in which life can be managed in order for it to be good. Carta, and B. Washington, DC: U.

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Pollard Middle School / Academics / Homework Cluster Sites. Homework Sites. To email a teacher, please use: first name_last name@bokelv.essaywriters4u.com Pollard Middle School / Academics / Homework Elective Teacher Site. Grade 7 & 8 elective teacher sites: To email a teacher, please use: first name_last. No information is available for this page.