Some journals use a DOI digital object identifier to uniquely identify the article. Journal name in italics , volume number in italics , issue number, page number range of the article if available. Gelkopf, M. International Journal of Stress Management, 15 2 , — Some journal articles will not have a DOI. URL or journal home page.
Baxter, S. Learning through experience: The impact of direct experience on children's brand awareness. Marketing Bulletin, Hsing, Y. Macroeconomic policies and economic growth: The case of Costa Rica. Journal of Applied Business Research, 21 2 , — The earlier 6th edition of APA formats this differently.
See 6th vs. Magazine articles and newspaper articles follow the same format as journal articles, with a few alterations. See the section on referencing other material for details. American Psychological Association. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed. These pages are provided as a guide to proper referencing. Your course, department, school, or institute may prescribe specific conventions, and their recommendations supersede these instructions.
Have a study or assignment writing question? Alumni Merchandise Chapters Benefits more News Latest releases Research news University news more Events and key dates Albany campus Manawatu campus Wellington campus more Jobs Academic General Staff benefits more History of the University - - - more Calendar more Courses Programme search Paper search Course advice more Academic teaching timetables Timetable planner Building codes more Examinations Exam timetable Exam venues Key exam dates more Library Find information Library services Help and instruction more PhD and doctoral degree administration Doctoral handbook Administration forms Citations more British Journal of Nursing , 25 15 , Research indicated that "lost sense of smell is a factor" Khan et al.
Khan et al. Khan, A. Rhinology, 57 5 , Nairne and Wilkinson assert that "our relationship with ourselves is essential to how we each show up professionally" p. The review included 78 trials employing a variety of intervention approaches Hodder et al.
Hodder et al. For journal issues with article numbers rather than consecutive pagination replace with page numbers with the word 'Article' followed by the article number or eLocator. Voices from the grandstands: The attitudes of Australian football fans towards the concept of creating, developing and binding communities.
Sporting Traditions , 33 2 , Note: Where a print journal article has a DOI you must include it, even though you did not access the electronic version. OR Christensen et al. For direct quotes of online material without pagination, name the sections and paragraph number:. The authors' "objective was to identify control journals that did not require data posting" Christensen et al. Christensen, G. A study of the impact of data sharing on article citations using journal policies as a natural experiment.
Secondary Sources: When you are referring to the ideas or words of an author who has been cited in another work. Also called 'secondary citation'. Where the year is known for the original work, include it as well as the year of the publication you read. Provide the full reference for the journal article that you actually read. RTO Code: Skip to main content. VU Home Library Guides. Search this Guide Search. On this page APA Referencing: journal articles video Basic format to reference journal articles Referencing journal articles: Examples Related links within this guide.
Related links within this guide What is a DOI? Information about digital object identifiers. In-text referencing The basics of an in-text reference in APA. Quotes in APA 7th How to include quotes within the text of your work. Secondary sources Referring to the ideas or words of an author who has been cited in another authors work.
Basic format to reference journal articles A basic reference list entry for a journal article in APA must include: Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials. Year of publication of the article in round brackets. Article title. Journal title in italics.
Author, Initial. Title of the article: Subtitle if there is one. Title of the Journal, volume issue if used , pages. Title of the Journal, volume issues if used , pages. Li, S. Learning to do qualitative data analysis: An observational study of doctoral work. Bartlett, R. Going private but staying public: Re-examining the effect of Sarbanes-Oxley on firms going-private decisions.
The University of Chicago Law Review, 76, 7— Fennimore, D. American neoclassical furniture and its European antecedents. American Art Journal , 13 4 , Include the database home page URL if the article is:. Von Ledebur, S. Optimizing knowledge transfer by new employees in companies. Advance online publication.
Blake, D. Cleavage stage versus blastocyst stage embryo transfer in assisted conception. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , 4. Special issues. Haney, C. Capital punishment in the United States [Special issue]. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 10 4. Orazi, D. The nature and framing of gambling consequences in advertising. Journal of Business Research, 68 10 , One author, Multiple works published in the same year. Reference list entry:. Kasabov, N. Evolving connectionist systems for adaptive learning and knowledge discovers: Trends and directions.
Knowledge-Based Systems, 80 , 2— Integrative Computational Neurogenetic Modeling. Toga Ed. Academic Press. Find more in-text citation examples on the In-text Citation page. Wilson, S. Targets and taxes: Explaining the welfare orientations of the Australian public.
McFeely, S. Nursing Standard , 16 2 , 39— Author, A. Title of article. Title of Periodical. Brey, P. The strategic role of technology in a good society. Technology in Society. Reference format - online magazine or newspaper. Year, month day. Title of the magazine or newspaper , volume issue if used , pages. Read, E. Myth-busting gen Y. New Zealand Management , 54 10 , 63— Zendrian, A.
CEO pay too high? The New York Times. Nuke test inquiry doubted. The Dominion Post , p. Fleming, G. Shaking up the working world. The New Zealand Herald, p. Some business databases provide articles analysing a special industry or product. These articles often don't have authors. Use the publisher as the author, record the date of publication and name the database in the retrieval statement.
Euromonitor International. Coffee in New Zealand. Retrieved from Passport database. The new format includes https and the prefix doi. Oppenheimer, D. Improvement of writing skills during college: A multi-year cross-sectional and longitudinal study of undergraduate writing performance. Assessing Writing , 32, 12— Articles retrieved from library databases may include ezproxy. This ezproxy information should be removed. You could do a Google search for the journal title within double quotation marks , e.
Or, go to the Library database Ulrichsweb , search by the journal title or the journal's ISSN to find the journal record. On the journal record page, find the journal URL for your reference. This can happen to some discontinued journals, or journals archived in an archival database only. If you use electronic resources without DOI, such as an ebook or a data set or a journal without a website, from a library database, You are required to include the URL of the database homepage in your reference.
An ebook "Small town sustainability: economic, social,and environmental innovation". Should I include the exact publication date or just the year in an APA journal citation? The inclusion of volume and issue numbers makes a more specific date unnecessary. Is this article helpful? He writes and edits for Scribbr, and reads a lot of books in his spare time. Other students also liked. Double-space all text and apply a hanging indent.
To cite a chapter in a book, include the editor and page range. Hi Benjamin, In general, it's always better to find the original source rather than cite a source that cites it. Hi Haley, To use the title of an article in a sentence, place it within quotation marks. Hi Liam, Thanks for this useful information! We will look into adding this to the article : Reply.
Hi, It's always best to locate the original source if possible, to ensure the information is accurate and you fully understand the context. Still have questions? Please click the checkbox on the left to verify that you are a not a bot. Learn more. Last name , Initials. Article title. Journal Name , Volume Issue , Page range. Mounier-Kuhn, P. Computer science in French universities: Early entrants and latecomers.
Article title [Unpublished manuscript]. Department Name , University Name. Smith, J. Language acquisition among autistic children [Unpublished manuscript]. Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame. Article title [Manuscript submitted for publication]. Language acquisition among autistic children [Manuscript submitted for publication].
Journal Name. Language acquisition among autistic children. Journal of Developmental Psychology. Title of issue [Special issue]. Journal Name , Volume Issue. Pollak, S. New perspectives on the development of human emotion [Special issue]. Developmental Psychology , 55 9. Citing personal communications in APA Style. Citing tables and figures from other sources in APA Style.
How to cite a book in APA Style. How to cite a brochure in APA Style. How to cite a conference paper in APA Style. How to cite a court case in APA Style. How to cite a dictionary in APA Style. How to cite a dissertation in APA Style. How to cite a government website or report in APA Style.
How to cite a journal article in APA Style. How to cite a law in APA Style. How to cite a magazine article in APA Style. How to cite a movie in APA Style. How to cite a newspaper article in APA Style. How to cite a patent in APA Style.
How to cite a podcast in APA Style. How to cite a press release in APA Style. How to cite a report in APA Style. How to cite a speech in APA Style. How to cite a survey in APA Style.
In the event there is any missing periodical information i. For more information, see Section 9. Some DOIs may be long and complicated. For more information about DOIs, see Section 9. Some instructors may want the full DOI. Some URLs may be long and complicated.
For more information about URLs, see Section 9. Some instructors may want the full URL. It depends. When adding URLs to a paper or other work, first, be sure to include the full hyperlink. Additionally, consider where and how the paper or work will be published or read.
This would allow the reader to click on a link and go to the source. Some instructors may not want you to use live URLs. Before citing an article from a periodical, one needs to determine if the article is from a magazine or a scholarly journal. There are two general clues to look to in order to make this determination:. Examine your article and determine if it is a magazine article or not. For an article coming from a magazine, see the Magazine Article page.
Remember, book reviews and newspaper articles are cited differently from both magazine and journal articles. For more information about articles and periodicals, see Sections 9. Kennedy, A. Physical education class and body image perception: Are they related? Physical Educator,. Begin the reference with the first author's last name. Add a comma after the author's last name.
Then, add the initials of the author's first and middle names if present. If the author provides a middle name or middle initial, be sure to add a space between the initials. If there are additional authors, add a comma after the first author's middle initial, and proceed to add the other authors using the same format as previously described. Add the authors in the exact order they are listed in the article. Do not change the order of the authors. Next, in parentheses, add the year the article was published.
Add a period after the parentheses. Next, add the title of the article. The title and subtitle if present are separated by a colon. Capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle as well as proper nouns. Add a period after the title. If the title includes a question mark or exclamation mark, replace the period with the appropriate punctuation.
Do not put a period after the question mark or exclamation point. Complete the reference with the source information. In this case, it would be the journal title, the journal volume number, the journal issue number, the page numbers of the article, and the DOI. For the journal title, capitalize all major words in the title, including an initial article e.
Do not capitalize prepositions or articles in the middle of a journal title e. Italicize the journal title. After the journal title, add the journal volume number and be sure to italicize the volume number. Then, add the issue number in parentheses. The parentheses and journal issue are not italicized. Add a comma after the parentheses, and then include the page range of the article for those articles with designated page numbers on each page of the article.
Add a period after the page numbers. More Information:. Kennedy et al. If a source has 3 or more authors, list the first author followed by et al. Follow this format even when using the source for the first time in the document. For more information about author format in parenthetical and narrative citations, see Section 8. Rush, M. Health care's new wilderness: The intersection of telehealth.
Journal of Health Care Compliance, 21 3 , Next, in parentheses, add the year of publication. In this case, it would be the journal title, the journal volume number, the journal issue number, and the page numbers of the article.
Rush et al. Faggella-Luby, M. Learning strategy instruction for college. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 32 1 , Begin the reference with the first author's last name, Add a comma after the author's last name. DOI stands for "digital object identifier," a number specific to the article that can help others locate the source. Present these hyperlinks in blue and underlined text the default formatting in Microsoft Word , although plain black text is also acceptable.
Jerrentrup, A. For journal articles that are assigned article numbers rather than page ranges, include the article number in place of the page range. Casler , T. Improving the graduate nursing experience through support on a social media platform.
If an article does not have a DOI and you retrieved it from a common academic research database through the university library, there is no need to include any additional electronic retrieval information. The reference list entry looks like the entry for a print copy of the article. See APA 7, Section 9. Eaton, T. Whistleblowing and good governance. CPA Journal , 77 6 , 66— Didn't find what you need?
Search our website or email us. Read our website accessibility and accommodation statement. Reference List: Online Journal Articles. Print Page Report a broken link. Online Journal Articles The retrieval date and database information are not needed for articles retrieved from online sources. Instead, use a permanent link to the article.
The preferred permanent link is the DOI. If there is a DOI, you'll often find it somewhere on the first page of the journal article. It might also appear hidden behind a database button. In APA 7, follow the https format as shown below.