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Add to Wish List. Introduction 1. Aim This dissertation is concerned with the language use of two Democratic politicians who are candidates for the United States presidential election of November 4 thnamely Hillary Clinton, senator for New York and Barack Obama, senator for Illinois. Medan University of Sumatera Utara. Kissine, Mikhail. She belongs to the Democratic.

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Page 17 5 Select Personal Playlists from the dropdown menu on the left pane. To see the Sync progress, click on Sync Results. Page Basic Usage 4 You can now disconnect the Sansa e player from the computer. Basic Usage Power Button The power button is used to power on or off, putting the Sansa e player in standby mode as well as resetting it. For initial power-up you must unlocked the controls by moving the No Orange Color visible. Page Main Menu Turn the wheel counterclockwise to scroll up though menu items rapidly or decrease the volume during playback.

To play songs in random order, set Shuffle to On. Settings Music EQ 1 In playback mode, press submenu. You can crop your pictures with a photo editing software package prior to converting if you wish to display in full screen. Slideshow 1 Select Photo from the Main Menu. Page Video Mode 8 Use the Thumbwheel to control volume. FM Presets When Radio Mode is selected for the very first time, Sansa e will run an auto station searching and store the searched stations as the preset favorite stations.

You can record your own voice, an interview, or a speech via internal microphone. Page Settings Mode Select Yes to save recording. The file list will appear. Settings Mode You can personalize your Sansa e settings by scrolling down to Settings and select it from the Main Menu. Page Language Time: Hour and Minute and 12 or 24 hours Brightness Use the Thumbwheel to adjust the brightness setting, and then press Select to confirm and exit.

Page 35 See preloaded content as an example. Question: What music file formats does the Sansa e support? Any other formats need to be converted to these formats using the Sansa Media Converter. SanDisk Limited Warranty SanDisk warrants that this product will be free from material defects in design and manufacture and will substantially conform to the published specifications under normal use for one year from your date of purchase, subject to the conditions below.

SanDisk does not warrant, and shall not be responsible for, any lost data or information contained in any product including in any returned product , regardless of the cause of the loss. If you do not agree to the following terms and conditions, do not install or use the Software. The Software is protected by copyright laws and international copyright treaties, as well as other intellectual property laws and treaties.

Page 41 Your media player is equipped with a variety of features. To help you maximize your listening pleasure, SanDisk would like to advise you that it is important to use your headphones with your media player at a safe hearing level. Playing Content Page 25 Repeat 1. In playback mode, press the submenu button. Highlight and Select Repeat.

In playback mode, press submenu. Select the Shuffle item. To play songs in random order, set Shuffle to On. Music EQ 1. Scroll and Select the Music EQ item. Scroll and Select a Music EQ mode. Page 26 Add Songs to Go List 1. Play a song. Select the Add Song to Go List. You can also Add to the Go List by pressing and holding the Select button. Select yes to confirm. Remove Songs from Go List 1.

Select GoList from Playlists and play a song. Select the Remove Song from Go List. Scan through Song 1. In playback mode, enter submenu. Select the Scan Through Song item. Use the Thumbwheel to scan through the song. Delete Song 1. Select the Delete Song item.

Page 27 Rate This Song 3. Select the Rate This Song item. To play video select Video from the Main Menu. Select a Video to play. Press Select to pause or resume the video. Press submenu to move to Video list. Viewing Photos Your Sansa will only display photos in portrait orientation. You can crop your pictures with a photo editing software package prior to converting if you wish to display in full screen. To view photos, follow these steps: 1. To view photos, select Photo from the Main Menu.

Page 28 3. If you selected Thumbnails you will see the browser screen. Scroll through the photos and select the one of interest. To view slideshow, follow these steps: 1. Select Photo from the Main Menu. Select Slideshow Options. Select Music. Select an available Playlist. Scroll to View Photo List. Page 29 8. Select a desired album. Press select to view a photo. Press and hold Select for about 1 second until the music starts playing. Press Select again to Pause the slideshow.

Slideshow Options 1. Personalize your Slideshow Options. On to set non-stop slideshow. Page 30 3. Select View Photo List. Select the folder you desire for the Slideshow. Press select button when the list of photos is displayed. Press Select to start and pause the show. Use the Thumbwheel to control volume. Press submenu to return to View Photo List. Please note that the FM may not be available in your region.

You can browse other areas of the player, like Settings and Photos, while listening to the Radio. Programming FM Presets When the Radio Mode is selected for the very first time, the Sansa player will run an auto station searching and store the searched stations as the preset favorite stations. You can program up 20 preset s Page 32 To program the preset stations on your Sansa player, follow these steps: 1.

Press the submenu button in Radio mode. Select Add Preset to save current frequency into presets. Select Delete Preset to remove current frequency from presets. Select Delete All Preset to clear all presets, and next time when you enter Radio Mode, Sansa player will search automatically. Select Auto-Scan for Presets to allow Sansa player to automatically scan and store all available FM radio stations to preset. NOTE: This action will erase all stored preset stations.

FM Radio if applicable Press the Menu button to return to Main Menu. Press the Record button to start recording. To pause recording, select Pause in Record mode. To stop recording, select Stop in record mode, and then a pop-up window will appear on the screen.

Select Yes to save recording. The file list will appear. The instructions below for deleting photos and video from your player were created using Windows XP with Windows Media Player Connect your Sansa e to your computer. Click the drive containing your photos. Click on the photo folder. Deleting Videos To delete videos from your Sansa, follow these steps: 1. Click on the drive containing your videos. Click on the video folder.

Delete the videos Page 35 Deleting Music Files You can delete files directly from the Sansa player or using the computer. To delete music directly from the player, refer to Delete Song on page To delete music files using the computer, follow these steps: 1. Connect your Sansa to the computer. Select the place where you want to delete music files from. Deleting Content Settings Page 37 Backlight The Backlight timer setting can be adjusted to stay on for 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 45 seconds, or 60 seconds.

It can also be set to always stay ON. Auto Shut-off This option will put the Sansa player in standby after the specified time in minutes had expired. Warning: This option will erase all the data stored in the device!!!

Record Button This option allows user to define how the Record Button on the Sansa e player will behave once it is pressed. For correct Album Work functionality, the album art and associated music file may need to be located in the same folder. See preloaded content as an example. What is MTP? Media Transfer Protocol MTP is a new protocol and accompanying set of drivers developed by Microsoft to connect portable devices to a Windows XP PC and synchronize digital media content between those devices and the PC What music file formats does the Sansa e support?

Some of my music files are on my player, but cannot be played. When I select them, another song begins to play. What is wrong? You may not have purchased the rights to play the song on an Try cropping your pictures to x64 with a photo editing software package prior to converting if you wish to display in full screen.

Why should I update the firmware? You should always update the player to the latest firmware to ensure that it functions correctly and has all the latest features. How can I use non-supported file types with my MP3 player? First you must convert the songs to a supported format. Then you can transfer the songs to the player. Is the player compatible with podcast? As long as the podcast are in MP3 format and an appropriate bit rate kbps , then the player should be capable of playing the files.

Normally this is because the ID3 tags are missing information. On the computer, right-click the song and choose Properties, then the Summary tab and click Advanced. When you call or contact us for support, please include as much information as you can from your packaging material. This will allow us to help you more quickly. SanDisk Limited Warranty SanDisk warrants that this product will be free from material defects in design and manufacture and w Page 42 apply to any third party software provided with the product and you are responsible for all service and repair needed for such software.

This warranty is void if the product is not used in accordance with the product instructions, or if it is damaged as a result of improper installation, misuse, unauthorized repair, modification or accident. You must return the product in tamper resistant packaging, freight prepaid, as instructed by SanDisk. You must obtain a tracking confirmation number, which you may be required to provide to SanDisk.

SanDisk will, at its option, repair or replace the product with new or refurbished product of equal or greater capacity and functionality, or refund the purchase price. The warranty duration on replaced product will be that time period remaining on the original product.

The Software is owned by SanDisk or its Licensors. The Software is protected by copyright laws and international copyright treaties, as well as other intellectual property laws and treaties. Software License. Subject to the terms and conditions contained herein, SanDisk grants to you a limited, non-exclusive, non-sub licensable, trans Page 45 of laws provisions thereof. The U. Any action or proceeding arising from or relating to this Agreement shall be adjudicated in the state or federal courts of Santa Clara County, California, and the parties hereby agree to the exclusive jurisdiction and venue of such courts.

You will not remove or export from the United States or re-export from anywhere any part of the Software or any direct product thereof to any country in violation of U. Export Administration Regulations, or a successor thereto, except in compliance with and with all licenses and approvals required under applicable export laws and regulations including, without limitation, those of the U.

Department of Commerce. Any waivers or amendments of this Agreement shall be effective only if made in writing and signed by an authorized representative of each party. You agree that the Licensors are third party benefi Report abuse Libble takes abuse of its services very seriously.

Product: Spam. Hateful or violent content For example, Anti-Semitic content, racist content, or material that could result in a violent physical act.

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This function lets the user modify the name of a file or directory. Only visible if a file or directory name is on the clipboard. When selected it will move or copy the clipboard to the current directory. Deletes the currently selected file.

This option applies only to files, and not to directories. Rockbox will ask for confirmation before deleting a file. Press Select to confirm deletion or any other key to cancel. Delete Directory. Deletes the currently selected directory and all of the files and subdirectories it may contain.

Deleted directories cannot be recovered. Use this feature with caution! Set As Backdrop. Set the selected bmp file as background image. The bitmaps need to meet the conditions explained in section Open with. Runs a viewer plugin on the file. Normally, when a file is selected in Rockbox, Rockbox automatically detects the file type and runs the appropriate plugin. The Open With function can be used to override the default action and select a viewer by hand.

For example, this function can be used to view a text file even if the file has a non-standard extension i. See section Create Directory. Create a new directory in the current directory on the disk. Shows properties such as size and the time and date of the last modification for the selected file. If used on a directory, the number of files and subdirectories will be shown, as well as the total size.

Set As Recording Directory. Save recordings in the selected directory. Start File Browser Here. This option allows users to set the currently selected directory as the default start directory for the file browser. This option is not available for files. Note: If you have Auto-Change Directory and Constrain Auto-Change enabled, the directories returned will be constrained to the directory you have chosen here and those below it.

See section 7. Browsing and playing Add to Shortcuts. Adds a link to the selected item in the shortcuts. If the file does not already exist it will be created in the root directory. Note that if you create a shortcut to a file, Rockbox will not open it upon selecting, but simply bring you to its location in the File Browser.

Virtual Keyboard Figure 4. The virtual keyboard can be easily changed by making a text file with the required layout. More information on how to achieve this can be found on the Rockbox website at ZLoadableKeyboardLayouts. Move the cursor on the virtual keyboard. If you move out of the picker area you get to the line edit mode. Flip to the next page of characters if there is more than one. Insert the selected keyboard letter at the current line cursor position.

Exit the virtual keyboard and save any changes. Exit the virtual keyboard without saving any changes. Database 4. Introduction This chapter describes the Rockbox music database system. The criteria the database uses to sort the songs can be completely customised. More information on how to achieve this can be found on the Rockbox website at ZDataBase. Initializing the Database The first time you use the database, Rockbox will scan your disk for audio files. This can take quite a while depending on the number of files on your player.

This scan happens in the background, so you can choose to return to the Main Menu and continue to listen to music. If you shut down your player, the scan will continue next time you turn it on. After the scan is finished you may be prompted to restart your player before you can use the database. Ignoring Directories During Database Initialization You may have directories on your player whose contents should not be added to the database.

Placing a file named database. This will speed up the database initialization. The files in that directory and its subdirectories will be scanned and added to the database. The Database Menu Auto Update If Auto update is set to on, each time the player boots, the database will automatically be updated.

Warning: Initialize Now removes all database files removing runtimedb data also and rebuilds the database from scratch. Update Now Update now causes the database to detect new and deleted files Note: Unlike the Auto Update function, Update Now will update the database regardless of whether the Directory Cache is enabled. Thus, an update using Update now may take a long time. Browsing and playing 29 Unlike Initialize Now, the Update Now function does not remove runtime database information.

Gather Runtime Data When enabled, rockbox will record how often and how long a track is being played, when it was last played and its rating. This information can be displayed in the WPS and is used in the database browser to, for example, show the most played, unplayed and most recently played tracks. This is needed when database structures change, because new code cannot read old database code. Import Modifications. If Auto Update is enabled this is performed automatically when the database is initialized.

To use the database, go to the Main Menu and select Database. There is no option to turn off database completely. If you do not want to use it just do not do the initial build of the database and do not load it to RAM. The items shown depend on your configuration — all items can be turned on or off independently.

Refer to section D page for details on how to change the display of the WPS. In contrast to all other items, the status bar is always at the top of the screen. Rewind in track. Go to the next track. Fast forward in track. Stop playback. Enter Main Menu. Show current Playlist. Skip to the next directory. Skip to the previous directory. Peak Meter The peak meter can be displayed on the While Playing Screen and consists of several indicators.

For a picture of the peak meter, please see the While Recording Screen in section 5. The bar: This is the wide horizontal bar. It represents the current volume value. The peak indicator: This is a little vertical line at the right end of the bar. It indicates the peak volume value that occurred recently. The clip indicator: This is a little black block that is displayed at the very right of the scale when an overflow occurs. It usually does not show up during normal playback unless you play an audio file that is distorted heavily.

If you encounter clipping while recording, your recording will sound distorted. You should lower the gain. Note: Note that the clip detection is not very precise. Clipping might occur without being indicated. The scale: Between the indicators of the right and left channel there are little dots. These dots represent important volume values. Playlist The Playlist submenu allows you to view, save, search and reshuffle the current playlist. These and other operations are detailed in section 4.

In this menu, you can find the Playlist Viewer Settings. Playlist Viewer Settings Show Icons. This toggles display of the icon for the currently selected playlist entry and the icon for moving a playlist entry Show Indices. This toggles display of the line numbering for the playlist Track Display.

This toggles between filename only and full path for playlist entries The Rockbox manual version rUnversioned directory Sansa Clip Zip b Chapter 4. Browsing and playing 33 Playlist catalogue View catalogue. This lists all playlists that are part of the Playlist catalogue. You can load a new playlist directly from this list.

Add to playlist. Adds the currently playing file to a playlist. Select the playlist you want the file to be added to and it will get appended to that playlist. Add to new playlist. Similar to the previous entry this will add the currently playing track to a playlist. You need to enter a name for the new playlist first. Sound Settings This is a shortcut to the Sound Settings Menu, where you can configure volume, bass, treble, and other settings affecting the sound of your music.

See section 6 page 49 for more information. Playback Settings This is a shortcut to the Playback Settings Menu, where you can configure shuffle, repeat, party mode, skip length and other settings affecting the playback of your music. Rating The menu entry is only shown if Gather Runtime Information is enabled.

It allows the assignment of a personal rating value 0 — 10 to a track which can be displayed in the WPS and used in the Database browser. The value wraps at Bookmarks This allows you to create a bookmark in the currently-playing track. Show Track Info Figure 4. Browsing and playing 34 is stored in audio file formats to keep information on artist, album etc.

Open With Delete Delete the currently playing file. The file will be deleted but the playback of the file will not stop immediately. Instead, the part of the file that has already been buffered i. This may even be the whole track. Pitch The Pitch Screen allows you to change the rate of playback i. The rate can be changed in two modes: procentual and semitone. Initially, procentual mode is active. This allows you to change the playback speed without affecting the pitch, and vice versa.

In timestretch mode there are separate displays for pitch and speed, and each can be altered independently. The value of the rate, pitch and speed is not persistent, i. However, the rate, pitch and speed information will be stored in any bookmarks you may create see section 8. Browsing and playing Key Action Home Toggle pitch changing mode cycle through all available modes. Leave the Pitch Screen. Working with Playlists 4. Playlist terminology Some common terms that are used in Rockbox when referring to playlists: Directory.

A playlist! One of the keys to getting the most out of Rockbox is understanding that Rockbox always considers the song that it is playing to be part of a playlist, and in some situations, Rockbox will create a playlist automatically. For example, if you are playing the contents of a directory, Rockbox will automatically create a playlist containing all songs in it.

This means that just about anything that is described in this chapter with respect to playlists also applies to directories. Dynamic playlist. In Rockbox, to Insert an item into a playlist means putting an item into a playlist and leaving it there, even after it is played. As you will see later in this chapter, Rockbox can Insert into a playlist in several places. In Rockbox, to Queue a song means to put the song into a playlist and then to remove the song from the playlist once it has been played.

The only difference between Insert and Queue is that the Queue option removes the song from the playlist once it has been played, and the Insert option does not. Creating playlists Rockbox can create playlists in four different ways.

Note: If you already have created a dynamic playlist, playing a new song will erase the current dynamic playlist and create a new one. If you want to add a song to the current playlist rather than erasing the current playlist, see the section below on how to add music to a playlist. This will erase any dynamic playlist. By using the Playlist catalogue The Playlist catalogue makes it possible to modify and create playlists that are not currently playing.

To do this select Playlist catalogue in the Context Menu. There you will have two choices, Add to playlist adds the selected track or directory to an existing playlist and Add to a new playlist creates a new playlist containing the selected track or directory.

It is however possible to move existing playlists there see section 4. By using the Main Menu To create a playlist containing all music on your player, you can use the Create Playlist command in the Playlists menu found in the Main Menu. The created playlist will be named root. Adding music to playlists Adding music to a dynamic playlist Figure 4.

If there is no music currently playing, Rockbox will create a new dynamic playlist and put the selected track s into it. If there is music currently playing, Rockbox will put the selected track s into the current playlist. The place in which the newly selected tracks are added to the playlist is determined by the following options: Insert. Add track s immediately after any tracks added via the most recent Insert operation.

If no tracks have yet been added via an Insert, new tracks will be added immediately after the current playing track. If playback is stopped a new dynamic playlist will get created with the selected tracks. Insert Next. Add track s immediately after current playing track, no matter what else has been inserted. Insert Last. Add track s to end of playlist. Insert Shuffled. Add track s to the playlist in a random order. Insert Last Shuffled. Add tracks in a random order to the end of the playlist.

Queue is the same as Insert except queued tracks are deleted immediately from the playlist after they have been played. Also, queued tracks are not saved to the playlist file see section 5. Queue Next. Queue track s immediately after current playing track.

Queue Last. Queue track s at end of playlist. Queue Shuffled. Queue track s in a random order. Queue Last Shuffled. Queue tracks in a random order at the end of the playlist. Browsing and playing 38 Play Next. Replaces all but the current playing track with track s. Current playing track is queued. The Playlist Submenu can be used to add either single tracks or entire directories to a playlist.

If the Playlist Submenu is invoked on a single track, it will put only that track into the playlist. On the other hand, if the Playlist Submenu is invoked on a directory, Rockbox adds all of the tracks in that directory to the playlist. Note: You can control whether or not Rockbox includes the contents of subdirectories when adding an entire directory to a playlist.

Modifying playlists Reshuffling Reshuffling the current playlist is easily done from the Playlist sub menu in the WPS, just select Reshuffle. Once in the Playlist Viewer open the context menu on the track you want to move or remove. If you want to move the track, select Move in the context menu and then move the blinking cursor to the place where you want the track to be moved and confirm with Select or Right.

To remove a track, simply select Remove in the context menu. Either method will bring you to the Virtual Keyboard see section 4. Browsing and playing 39 4. Loading saved playlists Through the File Browser Playlist files, like regular music tracks, can be selected through the File Browser. When loading a playlist from disk it will replace the current dynamic playlist. It can be used like the File Browser. The Main Menu 5. Introducing the Main Menu Figure 5.

This is the first screen you will see when starting Rockbox. To return to the Main Menu, press the Home button. All settings are stored on the unit. However, Rockbox does not access the flash storage solely for the purpose of saving settings. Instead, Rockbox will save settings when it accesses the flash storage the next time, for example when refilling the music buffer or navigating through the File Browser.

Changes to settings may therefore not be saved unless the player is shut down safely see section 3. Inside a setting, increase the value or choose next option. Select the previous option in the menu. Inside a setting,decrease the value or choose previous option. Select option. Exit menu or setting, or move to parent menu.

Recent Bookmarks Figure 5. Note: Bookmarking only works when tracks are launched from the file browser, and does not currently work for tracks launched via the database. In addition, they do not currently work with dynamic playlists. Select the previous bookmark. Resume from the selected bookmark. Exit Recent Bookmark menu. Delete the currently selected bookmark. Enter the context menu for the selected bookmark. There are two options in the context menu: Resume will commence playback of the currently selected bookmark entry.

Delete will remove the currently selected bookmark entry from the list. This entry is not shown in the Main Menu when the option is off the default setting. Files Browse the files on your player see section 4. Database Browse by the meta-data in your audio files see section 4. Settings The Settings menu allows you to set or adjust many parameters that affect the way your player works.

There are many submenus for different parameter areas. Every time you are setting a value of a parameter, and that value is selected from a list of some predefined available values, you can press Long Select, and the selection cursor will jump to the default value for the parameter.

You can then confirm or cancel the value. This is useful if you have changed the value of the parameter from the default to some other value and would like to restore the default value. Sound Settings The Sound Settings menu offers a selection of sound properties you may change to customise your listening experience.

The details of this menu are covered in section 6 page Playback Settings The Playback Settings menu allows you to configure settings related to audio playback. The details of this menu are covered in section 7 page General Settings The General Settings menu allows you to customise the way Rockbox looks and the way it plays music.

The details of this menu are covered in section 8 page Theme Settings The Theme Settings menu contains options that control the visual appearance of Rockbox. The details of this menu are covered in section 9 page Recording Settings The Recording Settings menu allows you to configure settings related to recording. The details of this menu are covered in detail in section 10 page The Main Menu 43 5. Manage Settings The Manage Settings option allows the saving and re-loading of user configuration settings, browsing the hard drive for alternate firmwares, and finally resetting your player back to initial configuration.

The details of this menu are covered in section Recording 5. While Recording Screen Figure 5. The Recording Screen shows the time elapsed and the size of the file being recorded. A peak meter is present to allow you set gain correctly.

There is also a volume setting, this will only affect the output level of the player and does not affect the recorded sound. If enabled in the peak meter settings, a counter in front of the peak meters shows the number of times the clip indicator was activated during recording. The counter is reset to zero when starting a new recording. The frequency and channels settings are shown in the status bar. Adjust selected setting. Start recording.

While recording: pause recording press again to continue. Exit Recording Screen. While recording: Stop recording. Open Recording Settings see section 10 page Power Long Submenu 5. FM Radio Figure 5. The FM radio has the ability to remember station frequency settings presets.

Since stations and their frequencies vary depending on location, it is possible to load these settings from a file. Such files should have the filename extension. To load the settings, i. Some preset files are available here: ZFmPresets. It is also possible to record the FM radio while listening. At this point, you will be switched to the Recording Screen. Further information on Recording can be found in section 5. Seek to next station in SCAN mode. Leave the radio screen with the radio playing.

Stop the radio and return to Main Menu. Mute radio playback. Open a list of radio presets. You can view all the presets that you have, and switch to the station. Display the FM radio settings menu. Saving a preset: Up to 64 of your favourite stations can be saved as presets. Long Select to go to the menu, then select Add preset. Enter the name maximum number of characters is Press Long Select to save. Selecting a preset: Select to go to the presets list. Use Left to leave the preset list without selecting anything.

Removing a preset: Select to go to the presets list. Playlists This menu allows you to work with playlists. Playlists can be created in three ways. Playing a file in a directory causes all the files in it to be placed in a playlist. Playlists can be created manually by either using the Context Menu see section 4. Both automatically and manually created playlists can be edited using this menu. The Main Menu Create Playlist: Rockbox will create a playlist with all tracks in the current directory and all sub-directories.

View Current Playlist: Displays the contents of the playlist currently stored in memory. Save Current Playlist: Saves the current dynamic playlist, excluding queued tracks, to the specified file. If no path is provided then playlist is saved to the current directory. View Catalogue: Provides a simple interface to maintain several playlists see section 4. Plugins With this option you can load and run various plugins that have been written for Rockbox. There are a wide variety of these supplied with Rockbox, including several games, some impressive demos and a number of utilities.

A detailed description of the different plugins is to be found in section 12 page System Rockbox Info: Displays some basic system information. This is, from top to bottom, the amount of memory Rockbox has available for storing music the buffer. The battery status. Memory size and amount of free space on the two data volumes, this info is given separately for internal memory Int and for a plugged in memory card MSD.

Credits: Display the list of contributors. Running Time: Shows the runtime of your player in hours, minutes and seconds. Running Time: This item shows the cumulative overall runtime of your player since you either disconnected it from charging in Rockbox or manually reset this item. A manual reset is done through pressing any button, followed by pressing Select or Right.

Top Time: This item shows the cumulative overall runtime of your player since you last manually reset this item. Debug Keep Out! It shows hardware, disk, battery status and other technical information. Warning: It is not recommended that users access this menu unless instructed to do so in the course of fixing a problem with Rockbox. If you think you have messed up your settings by use of this menu please try to reset all settings before asking for help. Quick Screen Although the Quick Screen is accessible from nearly everywhere, not just the Main Menu, it is worth mentioning here.

It allows rapid access to your four favourite settings. The default settings are Shuffle section 7 page 57 , Repeat section 7 page 57 and the Show Files section 8. To change the options, navigate through the menus to the setting you want to add and press Long Select.

In the menu which appears you will be given options to place the setting on the Quick Screen. Press Long Home to access it and Select or Home to exit. The direction buttons will modify the individual setting values as indicated by the arrow icons.

Please note that the settings at opposite sides of the screen cycle through the available options in opposite directions. Therefore if you select the same setting at e. Shortcuts This menu item is a container for user defined shortcuts to files, folders or settings. The file shortcuts. A reboot is needed for manual changes to shortcuts.

Shortcuts can be manually removed by selecting the one you wish to remove and pressing Long Select. Sound Settings Figure 6. Volume This setting adjusts the volume of your music. Like most professional audio gear and many consumer audio products, Rockbox uses a decibel scale where 0 dB is a reference that indicates the maximum volume that the player can produce without possible distortion clipping.

All values lower than this reference will be negative and yield a progressively softer volume. Values higher than 0 dB are available and can be used to raise the volume more than would otherwise be possible.

These volume levels will ordinarily lead to distorted sound, but might work nicely for music that has an otherwise low volume level. Bass This setting emphasises or suppresses the lower bass frequencies in the sound. A value of 0 dB means that bass sounds are unaltered flat response. The minimum setting is dB and the maximum is 24 dB. Volume Limit This setting adjusts the maximum volume of your music.

The setting is by default set to the maximum volume which equals to no limit. Sound Settings 50 from the list and the maximum volume will be limited to the selected value all over the system. Treble This setting emphasises or suppresses the higher treble frequencies in the sound. A value of 0 dB means that treble sounds are unaltered flat response. Balance This setting controls the balance between the left and right channels.

The default, 0, means that the left and right outputs are equal in volume. Negative numbers increase the volume of the left channel relative to the right, positive numbers increase the volume of the right channel relative to the left. Channels A stereo audio signal consists of two channels, left and right. The Channels setting determines if these channels are to be combined in any way, and if so, in what manner they will be combined.

Available options are: Stereo. Leave the audio signal unmodified. Combine both channels and send the resulting signal to both stereo channels, resulting in a monophonic output. Allows you to manually specify a stereo width with the Stereo Width setting described later in this chapter. Mono Left. Plays the left channel in both stereo channels. Mono Right. Plays the right channel in both stereo channels.

Removes all sound that is common to both channels. Since most music is recorded with vocals being equally present in both channels to make the singer sound centrally placed, this often but not always has the effect of removing the voice track from a song. This setting also very often has other undesirable effects on the sound. Sound Settings of one channel into the other. This has the effect of widening the stereo field. Crossfeed Crossfeed attempts to make the experience of listening to music on headphones more similar to listening to music with stereo speakers.

When you listen to music through speakers, each ear will hear sound originating from both speakers. However, the sound from the left speaker reaches your right ear slightly later than it does your left ear, and vice versa. The human ear and brain together are very good at interpreting the time differences between direct sounds and reflected sounds and using that information to identify the direction that the sound is coming from.

On the other hand, when listening to headphones, each ear hears only the stereo channel corresponding to it. The left ear hears only the left channel and the right ear hears only the right channel. The result is that sound from headphones does not provide the same spatial cues to your ear and brain as speakers, and might for that reason sound unnatural to some listeners. The crossfeed function uses an algorithm to feed a delayed and filtered portion of the signal from the right channel into the left channel and vice versa in order to simulate the spatial cues that the ear and brain receive when listening to a set of loudspeakers placed in front of the listener.

The result is a more natural stereo image that can be especially appreciated in older rock and jazz records, where one instrument is often hard-panned to just one of the speakers. Many people will find such records tiring to listen to using earphones and no crossfeed effect.

Crossfeed has the following settings: Crossfeed. Selects whether the crossfeed effect is to be enabled or not. Direct Gain. How much the level of the audio that travels the direct path from a speaker to the corresponding ear is supposed to be decreased. Cross Gain.

How much the level of the audio that travels the cross path from a speaker to the opposite ear is to be decreased. High-Frequency Attenuation. How much the upper frequencies of the cross path audio will be dampened. Note that the total level of the higher frequencies will be a combination of both this setting and the Cross Gain setting.

High-Frequency Cutoff. Decides at which frequency the cross path audio will start to be cut by the amount described by the High-Frequency Attenuation setting. Sound Settings 52 Most users will find the default settings to yield satisfactory results, but for the more adventurous user the settings can be fine-tuned to provide a virtual speaker placement suited to ones preference. Beware that the crossfeed function is capable of making the audio distort if you choose settings which result in a too high output level.

Equalizer Figure 6. In contrast to non-parametric equalizers, a parametric EQ enables adjusting the center frequency, gain, and width of EQ bands separately. The graphic below illustrates how the width of 10kHz band can be adjusted to cover a wider lower Q or narrower higher Q range of frequencies. Sound Settings 53 the EQ allows you to control the sound much more carefully.

Note that the parameteric EQ bands will be applied in addition to any bass or treble tone controls. Note: A maximum of 10 EQ bands are possible on most devices, but using more than are required will waste battery and introduce additional rounding noise. For best results, use the fewest number of bands required. For example, a cutoff frequency of 50 Hz will adjust only very low frequencies. A cutoff frequency of Hz, on the other hand, will adjust a much wider range of bass frequencies. Positive numbers make the EQ band louder, while negative numbers make that EQ band quieter.

Higher values will add a small boost around the cutoff frequency that is almost always undesirable. Bands Peaking filters. Peaking EQ filters boost or lower a frequency range centered at the centre frequency chosen. Graphic equalizers in home stereos are usually peaking filters. Higher Q values will affect a narrower band of frequencies, while lower Q values will affect a wider band of frequencies.

Band 9: High shelf filter. The high shelf filter is adjusted the same way as the low shelf filter, except that it works on the high end of the frequency spectrum rather than the low end. As a general guide, EQ band 0 should be used for low frequencies, EQ bands 1 through 8 should be used for mids, and EQ band 9 should be used for highs.

Enable EQ. This option controls whether the EQ is on or off. Graphical EQ. This option brings up a graphic EQ screen, which allows adjustment of each of the three parameters described above gain, centre frequency, and Q for each of the five EQ bands.

Lowers the highlighted parameter. Moves to the previous EQ band. Moves to the next EQ band. Toggles the cursor among the three parameters gain, centre frequency, Q for the selected EQ band Exits the graphic EQ screen. Power Pre-cut. If too much positive gain is added through the graphical EQ, your music may distort.

The Precut setting allows you to apply a global negative gain to decoded audio, cancelling out positive gain from the EQ. This will prevent distortion when boosting certain frequency ranges, at the expense of making audio quieter. Alternatively, precut can be used with a flat EQ curve to implement a volume cap. Note that precut is not applied if EQ is disabled. Simple EQ.

This option provides an easier alternative for those who are daunted by all of the parameters that can be adjusted using the graphical EQ. With the Simple EQ, the only parameter that can be adjusted is the gain. Advanced EQ. This sub menu provides options for adjusting the same parameters as the Graphical EQ.

The only difference is that the parameters are adjusted through textual menus rather than through a graphic interface. Save EQ Preset. This option saves the current EQ configuration in a. Browse EQ Presets. Users unfamiliar with the operation of a parametric EQ may wish to use the presets instead of trying to configure the EQ, or use the presets for designing their own custom EQ settings.

Dithering This setting controls the dithering and noise shaping functionality of Rockbox. The simplest way to convert from one bit depth to another is simply discarding all the surplus bits. This is the default behaviour, and adds distortion to the signal that will vary in character along with the desired sound. Dithering adds low-level noise to the signal prior to throwing away the surplus bits, which gives the resulting signal a uniform noise floor which is independent of the sig- The Rockbox manual version rUnversioned directory Sansa Clip Zip Chapter 6.

Sound Settings 55 nal. Most people find this noise preferable to the time-varying noise heard when not performing dithering. After dithering, noise shaping is performed. This basically just pushes the dithering noise to the parts of the frequency spectrum humans cannot hear so easily.

This setting will be put to its best use when listening to dynamic music with frequently occuring quiet parts, classical music being a typical example. It is worth noting that the effects of dithering and noise shaping are very subtle, and not easily noticable. Rockbox uses highpass triangular distribution noise as the dithering noise source, and a third order noise shaper. Timestretch Enabling Timestretch allows you to change the playback speed without it affecting the pitch of the recording.

After enabling this feature and rebooting, you can access this via the Pitch Screen. This function is intended for speech playback and may significantly dilute your listening experience with more complex audio. See section 4. Haas Surround This setting implements the Haas effect with adjustable delay time to enhance the stereo effect of the sound.

A full range Haas effect creates the impression that sound starts from one channel and ends in the other. Therefore, four additional functions are provided to move the stage back to the center: Balance to change the left-right channel output ratio. A bypass band for frequencies that mostly contain vocals, using f x1 , and f x2 to set frequencies which are not affected. Perceptual Bass Enhancement This setting implements a group delay correction and an additional biophonic EQ to emphasize to boost bass perception.

The precut setting provides negative overall gain to prevent possible audio distortion due to the EQ gain. The defult precut value is set to Note that this effect will stack with any other EQ applied. Sound Settings 56 6. Auditory Fatigue Reduction Human hearing is more senstive to some frequency bands. This setting applies additional equalization and bi-shelf filtering to reduce signals in these bands to minimize the chance that temporary threshold shift auditory fatigue occurs.

Compressor The Compressor reduces, or compresses, the dynamic range of the audio signal. This makes the quieter and louder sections closer to the same volume level by progressively reducing the gain of louder signals. When subsequently amplified, this has the effect of making the quieter sections louder while keeping the louder sections from clipping.

This allows listening to the quiet sections of dynamic material in noisy environments while preventing sudden loud sections from being overbearing. There are several settings associated with the compressor. The first, and most important, is the Threshold. The threshold is the audio input level at which the compressor begins to act. Any level louder than the threshold will be compressed to some extent.

The maximum amount of compression, or the quietest level at which the compressor will operate, is dB. The default of Off disables the compressor. The Makeup Gain setting has two options: Off and Auto. Off means that the compressed audio will not be amplified after compression. The default of Auto will amplify the signal so that the loudest possible signal after compression will be just under the clipping limit.

This is desirable because the compressed signal without makeup gain is quieter than the input signal. Makeup Gain in Auto restores the signal to the maximum possible level and brings the quieter audio up with it. This is what makes it possible to hear the quieter audio in noisy environments.

The Ratio setting determines how aggressively the compressor reduces gain above the threshold. For example, the setting means that for each two decibels of input signal above the threshold, the compressor will only allow the output to appear as one decibel. The higher the ratio, the harder the signal is compressed.

The ratio setting of Limit means essentially a ratio of infinity to one. In this case, the output signal is not allowed to exceed the threshold at all. The Knee setting determines how abrupt the transition is from a non-compressed signal to a compressed signal. Hard Knee means that the transition occurs precisely at the threshold.

The Soft Knee setting smoothes the transition from plus or minus three decibels around the threshold. The Attack Time setting sets the delay in milliseconds between the input signal exceeding the activation threshold and acting upon it.

The Release Time setting sets the recovery time after the signal is compressed. Release Time is the time for the gain to recover by 10 dB. Playback Settings 57 7. Shuffle Turning shuffle on will cause Rockbox to randomly re-order the playlist. Thus, to shuffle all of the audio files on the player, you first need to create a playlist containing all of them.

For more information on creating playlists refer to section 4. Repeat Configures settings related to repeating of directories or playlists. The current playlist will not repeat when it is finished. Note: If you have the Auto-Change Directory option set to Yes, Rockbox will move on to the next directory on your hard drive.

If the Auto-Change Directory option is set to No, playback will stop when the current directory or playlist is finished. The current playlist will repeat when it is finished. Repeat one track over and over. When the current playlist has finished playing, it will be shuffled and then repeated. Repeats between two user defined points within a track, typically used by musicians when attempting to learn a piece of music.

This option is more complicated to use than the others as the player must first be placed into A-B repeat mode and then the start and end points defined. Playback Settings 58 7. Play Selected First This setting controls what happens when you select a file for playback while shuffle mode is on. If the Play Selected First setting is Yes, the file you selected will be played first.

If this setting is No, a random file in the directory will be played first. Party Mode Enables unstoppable music playback. When new songs are selected, they are queued at the end of the current dynamic playlist instead of being played immediately. Pausing and stopping playback is disabled as well as skipping songs and launching plugins. Crossfade This section controls the behavior of the crossfader.

The crossfader, when enabled, smoothly fades one track into the next. This can occur in two situations: an automatic track change or a manual track skip. An automatic track change occurs at the end of the track, moving to the next track in the playlist without user intervention. A manual track skip goes to the next track immediately when the appropriate button is pressed.

Options for crossfade settings are: Enable Crossfade. If set to Off, crossfade is disabled and all track changes are gapless. If set to Automatic Track Change Only, crossfade occurs for automatic track changes, but not for manual track skips. The next setting, Manual Track Skip Only, is the opposite: tracks will only crossfade when manually skipped. If set to Shuffle, crossfade is enabled for all track changes, automatic or manual, when the shuffle feature is set to Yes, but disabled otherwise.

If set to Shuffle or Manual Track Skip then crossfade will be active either when shuffle is set to Yes or the track is manually skipped. If set to Always, tracks will always crossfade into one another. Playback Settings Fade In Delay. One introduces a 0.

This is most noticeable on musical tracks where the song does not fade completely out before the next begins. Artists whose names begin with "The" are listed incorrectly as well. For unknown reasons, the order of tracks on a given album play in alphabetical order, seriously disrupting the continuity of the listening experience. Version 1 players had a menu option under the Settings menu for storage mode that could be toggled to show up as standard USB flash drive.

For V2 Sansa players with firmware version V Upgrading to later firmware versions, V The Sansa eR was released in October Physically identical to the regular Sansa e, this player is sold exclusively at Best Buy, or directly through Rhapsody, the RealNetworks digital music store. The main differences in the eR is the firmware and bootloader, which are not easily interchangeable with the e The player has a feature called "Rhapsody Channels", which is the online service's brand of podcasting, and also comes with pre-loaded content.

Models with smaller capacities will receive about 1 GB of pre-loaded content, while bigger ones will have approximately 2 GB. It also anti-aliases the text displayed, and has different names for the USB modes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mass 2. October 6, December 4, Western Digital. Tegile Systems Virident Systems. Categories : Digital audio players Portable media players SanDisk products.

Namespaces Article Talk.

THESIS STATEMENT FOR A PAPER ON ANOREXIA

The music should continue to play even if the device is locked. One drive letter is for the Sansa player. Another drive letter is for the microSD card. The Sansa e player can be used as another removable drive to transfer files to and from the computer Page Transfer Photos And Video To transfer photos and video to your Sansa e 1 Connect the Sansa e to the computer 2 Select Converter using Sansa Media Converter on initial connection The detected Sansa e will list the available space and total space on the device.

Page 15 5 Drag the songs from Details pane to the List Pane to add them to the new playlist 6 To re-arrange the songs, drag them up or down in the List pane. Page 17 5 Select Personal Playlists from the dropdown menu on the left pane. To see the Sync progress, click on Sync Results. Page Basic Usage 4 You can now disconnect the Sansa e player from the computer. Basic Usage Power Button The power button is used to power on or off, putting the Sansa e player in standby mode as well as resetting it.

For initial power-up you must unlocked the controls by moving the No Orange Color visible. Page Main Menu Turn the wheel counterclockwise to scroll up though menu items rapidly or decrease the volume during playback. To play songs in random order, set Shuffle to On. Settings Music EQ 1 In playback mode, press submenu. You can crop your pictures with a photo editing software package prior to converting if you wish to display in full screen. Slideshow 1 Select Photo from the Main Menu.

Page Video Mode 8 Use the Thumbwheel to control volume. FM Presets When Radio Mode is selected for the very first time, Sansa e will run an auto station searching and store the searched stations as the preset favorite stations.

You can record your own voice, an interview, or a speech via internal microphone. Page Settings Mode Select Yes to save recording. The file list will appear. Settings Mode You can personalize your Sansa e settings by scrolling down to Settings and select it from the Main Menu. Page Language Time: Hour and Minute and 12 or 24 hours Brightness Use the Thumbwheel to adjust the brightness setting, and then press Select to confirm and exit. Page 35 See preloaded content as an example.

Question: What music file formats does the Sansa e support? Any other formats need to be converted to these formats using the Sansa Media Converter. A status box wi Playing Content Playing Music Follow these steps to play music, audio books, and voice recordings: 1. Select Music from the Main Menu. Highlight and select the desired track or file to play. You can browse other areas of your player music lists, settings, and photos , while your music is playing.

The following options are available during playback. Playing Content Page 25 Repeat 1. In playback mode, press the submenu button. Highlight and Select Repeat. In playback mode, press submenu. Select the Shuffle item. To play songs in random order, set Shuffle to On. Music EQ 1. Scroll and Select the Music EQ item. Scroll and Select a Music EQ mode. Page 26 Add Songs to Go List 1.

Play a song. Select the Add Song to Go List. You can also Add to the Go List by pressing and holding the Select button. Select yes to confirm. Remove Songs from Go List 1. Select GoList from Playlists and play a song. Select the Remove Song from Go List. Scan through Song 1. In playback mode, enter submenu.

Select the Scan Through Song item. Use the Thumbwheel to scan through the song. Delete Song 1. Select the Delete Song item. Page 27 Rate This Song 3. Select the Rate This Song item. To play video select Video from the Main Menu. Select a Video to play.

Press Select to pause or resume the video. Press submenu to move to Video list. Viewing Photos Your Sansa will only display photos in portrait orientation. You can crop your pictures with a photo editing software package prior to converting if you wish to display in full screen.

To view photos, follow these steps: 1. To view photos, select Photo from the Main Menu. Page 28 3. If you selected Thumbnails you will see the browser screen. Scroll through the photos and select the one of interest. To view slideshow, follow these steps: 1. Select Photo from the Main Menu. Select Slideshow Options. Select Music. Select an available Playlist. Scroll to View Photo List.

Page 29 8. Select a desired album. Press select to view a photo. Press and hold Select for about 1 second until the music starts playing. Press Select again to Pause the slideshow. Slideshow Options 1. Personalize your Slideshow Options.

On to set non-stop slideshow. Page 30 3. Select View Photo List. Select the folder you desire for the Slideshow. Press select button when the list of photos is displayed. Press Select to start and pause the show. Use the Thumbwheel to control volume. Press submenu to return to View Photo List. Please note that the FM may not be available in your region.

You can browse other areas of the player, like Settings and Photos, while listening to the Radio. Programming FM Presets When the Radio Mode is selected for the very first time, the Sansa player will run an auto station searching and store the searched stations as the preset favorite stations.

You can program up 20 preset s Page 32 To program the preset stations on your Sansa player, follow these steps: 1. Press the submenu button in Radio mode. Select Add Preset to save current frequency into presets. Select Delete Preset to remove current frequency from presets.

Select Delete All Preset to clear all presets, and next time when you enter Radio Mode, Sansa player will search automatically. Select Auto-Scan for Presets to allow Sansa player to automatically scan and store all available FM radio stations to preset. NOTE: This action will erase all stored preset stations. FM Radio if applicable Press the Menu button to return to Main Menu. Press the Record button to start recording.

To pause recording, select Pause in Record mode. To stop recording, select Stop in record mode, and then a pop-up window will appear on the screen. Select Yes to save recording. The file list will appear. The instructions below for deleting photos and video from your player were created using Windows XP with Windows Media Player Connect your Sansa e to your computer.

Click the drive containing your photos. Click on the photo folder. Deleting Videos To delete videos from your Sansa, follow these steps: 1. Click on the drive containing your videos. Click on the video folder. Delete the videos Page 35 Deleting Music Files You can delete files directly from the Sansa player or using the computer. To delete music directly from the player, refer to Delete Song on page To delete music files using the computer, follow these steps: 1.

Connect your Sansa to the computer. Select the place where you want to delete music files from. Deleting Content Settings Page 37 Backlight The Backlight timer setting can be adjusted to stay on for 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 45 seconds, or 60 seconds.

It can also be set to always stay ON. Auto Shut-off This option will put the Sansa player in standby after the specified time in minutes had expired. Warning: This option will erase all the data stored in the device!!! Record Button This option allows user to define how the Record Button on the Sansa e player will behave once it is pressed. For correct Album Work functionality, the album art and associated music file may need to be located in the same folder. See preloaded content as an example.

What is MTP? Media Transfer Protocol MTP is a new protocol and accompanying set of drivers developed by Microsoft to connect portable devices to a Windows XP PC and synchronize digital media content between those devices and the PC What music file formats does the Sansa e support? Some of my music files are on my player, but cannot be played. When I select them, another song begins to play.

What is wrong? You may not have purchased the rights to play the song on an Try cropping your pictures to x64 with a photo editing software package prior to converting if you wish to display in full screen. Why should I update the firmware? You should always update the player to the latest firmware to ensure that it functions correctly and has all the latest features.

How can I use non-supported file types with my MP3 player? First you must convert the songs to a supported format. Then you can transfer the songs to the player. Is the player compatible with podcast? As long as the podcast are in MP3 format and an appropriate bit rate kbps , then the player should be capable of playing the files. Normally this is because the ID3 tags are missing information. On the computer, right-click the song and choose Properties, then the Summary tab and click Advanced.

When you call or contact us for support, please include as much information as you can from your packaging material. This will allow us to help you more quickly. SanDisk Limited Warranty SanDisk warrants that this product will be free from material defects in design and manufacture and w Page 42 apply to any third party software provided with the product and you are responsible for all service and repair needed for such software.

This warranty is void if the product is not used in accordance with the product instructions, or if it is damaged as a result of improper installation, misuse, unauthorized repair, modification or accident. You must return the product in tamper resistant packaging, freight prepaid, as instructed by SanDisk. You must obtain a tracking confirmation number, which you may be required to provide to SanDisk. SanDisk will, at its option, repair or replace the product with new or refurbished product of equal or greater capacity and functionality, or refund the purchase price.

The warranty duration on replaced product will be that time period remaining on the original product. The Software is owned by SanDisk or its Licensors. The Software is protected by copyright laws and international copyright treaties, as well as other intellectual property laws and treaties. Software License. Subject to the terms and conditions contained herein, SanDisk grants to you a limited, non-exclusive, non-sub licensable, trans Page 45 of laws provisions thereof.

The U. Any action or proceeding arising from or relating to this Agreement shall be adjudicated in the state or federal courts of Santa Clara County, California, and the parties hereby agree to the exclusive jurisdiction and venue of such courts. You will not remove or export from the United States or re-export from anywhere any part of the Software or any direct product thereof to any country in violation of U. Export Administration Regulations, or a successor thereto, except in compliance with and with all licenses and approvals required under applicable export laws and regulations including, without limitation, those of the U.

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On the right of the unit is a slot for inserting ash cards. On the bottom is the connector for the USB cable. On the left is the Rec button, and on the top, there is the headphone socket to the right, and the Hold switch.

Moving this switch to the right activates hold mode in which none of the other buttons have any eect. Just to the left of the Hold switch is a small hole which contains the internal microphone. On shutdown, Rockbox automatically saves its settings. If you have problems with your settings, such as accidentally having set the colours to black on black, they can be reset at boot time.

See the Reset Settings in section In the unlikely event of a software failure, hardware powero or reset can be performed by holding down Power until the player shuts o or reboots. Starting the original rmware Rockbox has a dual-boot feature.

To boot into the original rmware, press and hold the Left button while turning on the player. The default directory structure that is assumed by some parts of Rockbox album art searching, and missing-tag fallback in some WPSes uses the parent directory of a song as the Album name, and the parent directory of that folder as the Artist name.

WPSes may display information incorrectly if your les are not properly tagged, and you have your music organized in a way dierent than they assume when attempting to guess the Artist and Album names from your letree. See section B. See section A. The rst contact After you have rst started the player, youll be presented by the Main Menu.

From this menu you can reach every function of Rockbox, for more information see section 5. To browse the les on your player, select Files see section 4. Basic controls When browsing les and moving through menus you usually get a list view presented. The navigation in these lists are usually the same and should be pretty intuitive. In the tree view use Scroll Forward and Scroll Backward to move around the selection. Use Select or Right to select an item. Note that the scroll speed is accelerating the faster you rotate the wheel.

When browsing the le system selecting an audio le plays it. The view switches to the While playing screen, usually abbreviated as WPS see section 4. The dynamic playlist gets replaced with the contents of the current directory. This way you can easily treat directories as playlists.

The created dynamic playlist can be extended or modied while playing. This is also known as on-the-y playlist. To go back to the File Browser stop the playback with the Power button or return to the le browser while keeping playback running using Select. In list views you can go back one step with Left.

Basic concepts Playlists Rockbox is playlist oriented. This means that every time you play an audio le, a socalled dynamic playlist is generated, unless you play a saved playlist. You can modify the dynamic playlist while playing and also save it to a le. If you do not want to use playlists you can simply play your les directory based. Playlists are covered in detail in section 4. Menu From the menu you can customise Rockbox.

Rockbox itself is very customisable. Also there are some special menus for quick access to frequently used functions. From the le browser this can be accessed with Long Select. The contents of the context menu vary, depending on the situation it gets called. The context menu itself presents you with some operations you can perform with the currently highlighted le. In the le browser this is the le or directory that is highlighted by the cursor.

From the WPS this is the currently playing le. Also there are some actions that do not apply to the current le but refer to the screen from which the context menu gets called. One example is the playback menu, which can be called using the context menu from within the WPS. Themes usually only aect the visual appearance, but an advanced user can create a theme that also changes various other settings like le view, LCD settings and all other settings that can be modied using.

This topic is discussed in more detail in section The Rockbox distribution comes with some themes that should look nice on your player. Note: Some of the themes shipped with Rockbox need additional fonts from the fonts package, so make sure you installed them. Also, if you downloaded additional themes from the Internet make sure you have the needed fonts installed as otherwise the theme may not display properly. This will prevent it from connecting to your computer and let you continue to use it normally.

Your player must already be in Rockbox for this to function. Rockbox lets you browse your music in either of two ways. The File Browser lets you navigate through the les and directories on your player, entering directories and executing the default action on each le. To help dierentiate les, each le format is displayed with an icon.

The Database Browser, on the other hand, allows you to navigate through the music on your player using categories like album, artist, genre, etc. If you choose the File Browser, the Show Files setting lets you select what types of les you wish to view. Note: The File Browser allows you to manipulate your les in ways that are not available within the Database Browser. Read more about Database in section 4. The remainder of this section deals with the File Browser.

Go to the parent directory. Execute the default action on the selected le or enter a directory. Stop audio playback. Enter the Context Menu. Enter the Main Menu. Switch to the Quick Screen see section 5. Switch to the Recording Screen.

Activate the Hotkey function see section 4. The Context Menu allows you to perform certain operations on les or directories. To access the Context Menu, position the selector over a le or directory and access the context menu with Long Select. Note: The Context Menu is a context sensitive menu. If the Context Menu is invoked on a le, it will display options available for les. If the Context Menu is invoked on a directory, it will display options for directories.

The Context Menu contains the following options unless otherwise noted, each option pertains both to les and directories : Playlist. Enters the Playlist Submenu see section 4. Playlist Catalog. Enters the Playlist Catalog Submenu see section 4.

This function lets the user modify the name of a le or directory. Copies the name of the currently selected le or directory to the clipboard and marks it to be cut. Copies the name of the currently selected le or directory to the clipboard and marks it to be copied. Only visible if a le or directory name is on the clipboard. When selected it will move or copy the clipboard to the current directory.

Deletes the currently selected le. This option applies only to les, and not to directories. Rockbox will ask for conrmation before deleting a le. Press Select to conrm deletion or any other key to cancel. Delete Directory. Deletes the currently selected directory and all of the les and subdirectories it may contain. Deleted directories cannot be recovered.

Use this feature with caution! Set As Backdrop. Set the selected bmp le as background image. The bitmaps need to meet the conditions explained in section Open with. Runs a viewer plugin on the le. Normally, when a le is selected in Rockbox, Rockbox automatically detects the le type and runs the appropriate plugin. The Open With function can be used to override the default action and select a viewer by hand. For example, this function can be used to view a text le even if the le has a non-standard extension i.

See section Create Directory. Create a new directory in the current directory on the disk. Shows properties such as size and the time and date of the last modication for the selected le. If used on a directory, the number of les and subdirectories will be shown, as well as the total size. Set As Recording Directory. Save recordings in the selected directory.

Add to Shortcuts. Adds a link to the selected item in the shortcuts. If the le does not already exist it will be created in the root directory. Note that if you create a shortcut to a le, Rockbox will not open it upon selecting, but simply bring you to its location in the File Browser. This is the virtual keyboard that is used when entering text in Rockbox, for example when renaming a le or creating a new directory.

The virtual keyboard can be easily changed by making a text le with the required layout. More information on how to achieve this can be found on the Rockbox website at ZLoadableKeyboardLayouts. Also you can switch to Morse code input mode by changing the Use Morse Code Input setting or by pressing Rec in the virtual keyboard. Note: When the cursor is on the input line, Select deletes the preceding character. Chapter 4. Delete the character before the line cursor.

Move the cursor on the virtual keyboard. If you move out of the picker area you get to the line edit mode. Flip to the next page of characters if there is more than one. Insert the selected keyboard letter at the current line cursor position. Exit the virtual keyboard and save any changes. Exit the virtual keyboard without saving any changes. Tap to select a character in Morse code input mode. Database 4. Introduction This chapter describes the Rockbox music database system.

The criteria the database uses to sort the songs can be completely customised. More information on how to achieve this can be found on the Rockbox website at ZDataBase. Initializing the Database The rst time you use the database, Rockbox will scan your disk for audio les.

This can take quite a while depending on the number of les on your player. This scan happens in the background, so you can choose to return to the Main Menu and continue to listen to music. If you shut down your player, the scan will continue next time you turn it on. After the scan is nished you may be prompted to restart your player before you can use the database. You may have directories on your player whose contents should not be added to the database.

Placing a le named database. This will speed up the database initialization. If a subdirectory of an ignored directory should still be scanned, place a le named database. The les in that directory and its subdirectories will be scanned and added to the database. Setting this to Yes loads the database to RAM, allowing faster browsing and searching. Setting this option to No keeps the database on the ash storage, meaning slower browsing but it does not use extra RAM and saves some battery on boot up.

Auto Update If Auto update is set to on, each time the player boots, the database will automatically be updated. Warning: Initialize Now removes all database les removing runtimedb data also and rebuilds the database from scratch. Update Now Update now causes the database to detect new and deleted les Note: Unlike the Auto Update function, Update Now will update the database regardless of whether the Directory Cache is enabled.

Thus, an update using Update now may take a long time. Unlike Initialize Now, the Update Now function does not remove runtime database information. Gather Runtime Data When enabled, rockbox will record how often and how long a track is being played, when it was last played and its rating. This information can be displayed in the WPS and is used in the database browser to, for example, show the most played, unplayed and most recently played tracks. This is needed when database structures change, because new code cannot read old database code.

Import Modications. If Auto Update is enabled this is performed automatically when the database is initialized. To use the database, go to the Main Menu and select Database. Note: You may need to increase the value of the Max files in dir browser setting Settings General Settings System Limits in order to view long lists of tracks in the ID3 database browser.

There is no option to turn o database completely. If you do not want to use it just do not do the initial build of the database and do not load it to RAM. The items shown depend on your conguration all items can be turned on or o independently. Refer to section B page for details on how to change the display of the WPS. Status bar: The Status bar shows Battery level, charger status, volume, play mode, repeat mode, shue mode and clock.

In contrast to all other items, the status bar is always at the top of the screen. Scrolling path and lename of the current song. The ID3 track name. Browsing and playing The ID3 album name. The ID3 artist name. Bit rate. VBR les display average bitrate and avg Elapsed and total time.

A slidebar progress meter representing where in the song you are. Peak meter. Go to beginning of track, or if pressed while in the rst seconds of a track, go to the previous track. Rewind in track. Go to the next track. Fast forward in track. Stop playback. Enter Main Menu.

Show Pitch Screen see section 4. Enter ID3 Viewer. Skip to the next directory. Peak Meter The peak meter can be displayed on the While Playing Screen and consists of several indicators. For a picture of the peak meter, please see the While Recording Screen in section 5.

The bar: This is the wide horizontal bar. It represents the current volume value. The peak indicator: This is a little vertical line at the right end of the bar. It indicates the peak volume value that occurred recently. The clip indicator: This is a little black block that is displayed at the very right of the scale when an overow occurs. It usually does not show up during normal playback unless you play an audio le that is distorted heavily.

If you encounter clipping while recording, your recording will sound distorted. You should lower the gain. Note: Note that the clip detection is not very precise. Clipping might occur without being indicated. The scale: Between the indicators of the right and left channel there are little dots. These dots represent important volume values. Playlist The Playlist submenu allows you to view, save, search and reshue the current playlist.

In this menu, you can nd the Playlist Viewer Settings. Playlist Viewer Settings Show Icons. This toggles display of the icon for the currently selected playlist entry and the icon for moving a playlist entry Show Indicies. This toggles display of the line numbering for the playlist Track Display.

This toggles between lename only and full path for playlist entries Save Current Playlist. Allows the current playlist to be saved as a. This lists all playlists that are part of the Playlist catalog. You can load a new playlist directly from this list. Add to playlist. Adds the currently playing le to a playlist. Select the playlist you want the le to be added to and it will get appended to that playlist. Add to new playlist. Similar to the previous entry this will add the currently playing track to a playlist.

You need to enter a name for the new playlist rst. This is a shortcut to the Sound Settings Menu, where you can congure volume, bass, treble, and other settings aecting the sound of your music. See section 6 page 51 for more information. Playback Settings This is a shortcut to the Playback Settings Menu, where you can congure shue, repeat, party mode, skip length and other settings aecting the playback of your music.

Rating The menu entry is only shown if Gather Runtime Information is enabled. It allows the asignment of a personal rating value 0 10 to a track which can be displayed in the WPS and used in the Database browser. The value wraps at Bookmarks This allows you to create a bookmark in the currently-playing track.

Show Track Info. This screen is accessible from the WPS screen, and provides a detailed view of all the identity information about the current track. This info is known as meta data and is stored in audio le formats to keep information on artist, album etc. Delete Delete the currently playing le.

The le will be deleted but the playback of the le will not stop immediately. Instead, the part of the le that has already been buered i. This may even be the whole track. Pitch The Pitch Screen allows you to change the rate of playback i. The rate can be changed in two modes: procentual and semitone. Initially, procentual mode is active. If youve enabled the Timestretch option in Sound Settings and have since rebooted, you can also use timestretch mode.

This allows you to change the playback speed without aecting the pitch, and vice versa. In timestretch mode there are separate displays for pitch and speed, and each can be altered independently. The value of the rate, pitch and speed is not persistent, i. However, the rate, pitch and speed information will be stored in any bookmarks you may create see section 8.

Leave the Pitch Screen. Working with Playlists 4. Playlist terminology Some common terms that are used in Rockbox when referring to playlists: Directory. A playlist! One of the keys to getting the most out of Rockbox is understanding that Rockbox always considers the song that it is playing to be part of a playlist, and in some situations, Rockbox will create a playlist automatically.

For example, if you are playing the contents of a directory, Rockbox will automatically create a playlist containing all songs in it. This means that just about anything that is described in this chapter with respect to playlists also applies to directories. Dynamic playlist. A dynamic playlist is a playlist that is created On the y. Any time you insert or queue tracks using the Playlist submenu see section 4.

In Rockbox, to Insert an item into a playlist means putting an item into a playlist and leaving it there, even after it is played. As you will see later in this chapter, Rockbox can Insert into a playlist in several places. In Rockbox, to Queue a song means to put the song into a playlist and then to remove the song from the playlist once it has been played. The only dierence between Insert and Queue is that the Queue option removes the song from the playlist once it has been played, and the Insert option does not.

Whenever a song is selected from the File Browser with Select or Right, Rockbox will automatically create a playlist containing all of the songs in that directory and start playback with the selected song. Note: If you already have created a dynamic playlist, playing a new song will erase the current dynamic playlist and create a new one. If you want to add a song to the current playlist rather than erasing the current playlist, see the section below on how to add music to a playlist.

By using Insert and Queue functions If playback is stopped, the Insert and Queue functions can be used as described in 4. This will erase any dynamic playlist. By using the Playlist catalog The Playlist catalog makes it possible to modify and create playlists that are not currently playing.

To do this select Playlist catalog in the Context Menu. There you will have two choices, Add to playlist adds the selected track or directory to an existing playlist and Add to a new playlist creates a new playlist containing the selected track or directory. It is however possible to move existing playlists there see section 4. By using the Main Menu To create a playlist containing all music on your player, you can use the Create Playlist command in the Playlists menu found in the Main Menu.

The created playlist will be named root. The Playlist Submenu is a submenu in the Context Menu see section 4. If there is no music currently playing, Rockbox will create a new dynamic playlist and put the selected track s into it. If there is music currently playing, Rockbox will put the selected track s into the current playlist. The place in which the newly selected tracks are added to the playlist is determined by the following options: Insert.

Add track s immediately after any tracks added via the most recent Insert operation. If no tracks have yet been added via an Insert, new tracks will be added immediately after the current playing track. If playback is stopped a new dynamic playlist will get created with the selected tracks. Insert Next. Add track s immediately after current playing track, no matter what else has been inserted.

Insert Last. Add track s to end of playlist. Insert Shued. Add track s to the playlist in a random order. Insert Last Shued. Add tracks in a random order to the end of the playlist. Queue is the same as Insert except queued tracks are deleted immediately from the playlist after they have been played. Also, queued tracks are not saved to the playlist le see section 5. Queue Next.

Queue track s immediately after current playing track. Queue Last. Queue track s at end of playlist. Browsing and playing Queue Shued. Queue track s in a random order. Queue Last Shued. Queue tracks in a random order at the end of the playlist. Play Next. Replaces all but the current playing track with track s. Current playing track is queued. The Playlist Submenu can be used to add either single tracks or entire directories to a playlist.

If the Playlist Submenu is invoked on a single track, it will put only that track into the playlist. On the other hand, if the Playlist Submenu is invoked on a directory, Rockbox adds all of the tracks in that directory to the playlist. Note: You can control whether or not Rockbox includes the contents of subdirectories when adding an entire directory to a playlists. Set the Settings General Settings Playlist Recursively Insert Directories setting to Yes if you would like Rockbox to include tracks in subdirectories as well as tracks in the currently-selected directory.

Dynamic playlists are saved so resume will restore them exactly as they were before shutdown. Modifying playlists Reshuing Reshuing the current playlist is easily done from the Playlist sub menu in the WPS, just select Reshuffle. Once in the Playlist Viewer open the context menu on the track you want to move or remove.

If you want to move the track, select Move in the context menu and then move the blinking cursor to the place where you want the track to be moved and conrm with Select or Right. To remove a track, simply select Remove in the context menu. Either method will bring you to the Virtual Keyboard see section 4. Loading saved playlists Through the File Browser Playlist les, like regular music tracks, can be selected through the File Browser.

When loading a playlist from disk it will replace the current dynamic playlist. Through the Playlist catalog The Playlist catalog oers a shortcut to all playlists in your players specied playlist directory. It can be used like the File Browser. Helpful Hints Including subdirectories in playlists You can control whether or not Rockbox includes the contents of subdirectories when adding an entire directory to a playlists. Set the Main Menu Settings General Settings Playlists Recursively Insert Directories setting to On if you would like to include tracks in subdirectories as well as tracks in the currently selected directory.

The assigned function will launch with reference to the current le or directory, if applicable. Each screen has its own assignment. If there is no assignment for a given screen, the hotkey is ignored. The hotkey assignments are changed in the Hotkey menu see section 8.

The Main Menu is the screen from which all of the Rockbox functions can be accessed. This is the rst screen you will see when starting Rockbox. To return to the Main Menu, press the Submenu button. All settings are stored on the unit. However, Rockbox does not access the ash storage solely for the purpose of saving settings.

Instead, Rockbox will save settings when it accesses the ash storage the next time, for example when relling the music buer or navigating through the File Browser. Changes to settings may therefore not be saved unless the player is shut down safely see section 3. Inside a setting, increase the value or choose next option.

Select the previous option in the menu. Inside a setting,decrease the value or choose previous option. Select option. Exit menu or setting, or move to parent menu. If the Save a list of recently created bookmarks option is enabled then you can view a list of several recent bookmarks here and select one to jump straight to that track.

Note: Bookmarking only works when tracks are launched from the le browser, and does not currently work for tracks launched via the database. In addition, they do not currently work with dynamic playlists. Chapter 5. Select the previous bookmark. Resume from the selected bookmark. Exit Recent Bookmark menu. Delete the currently selected bookmark. Enter the context menu for the selected bookmark. There are two options in the context menu: Resume will commence playback of the currently selected bookmark entry.

Delete will remove the currently selected bookmark entry from the list. This entry is not shown in the Main Menu when the option is o the default setting. Settings The Settings menu allows you to set or adjust many parameters that aect the way your player works. There are many submenus for dierent parameter areas.

Every time you are setting a value of a parameter, and that value is selected from a list of some predened available values, you can press Long Select, and the selection cursor will jump to the default value for the parameter. You can then conrm or cancel the value. This is useful if you have changed the value of the parameter from the default to some other value and would like to restore the default value.

Sound Settings The Sound Settings menu oers a selection of sound properties you may change to customise your listening experience. The details of this menu are covered in section 6 page Playback Settings The Playback Settings menu allows you to congure settings related to audio playback. The details of this menu are covered in section 7 page General Settings The General Settings menu allows you to customise the way Rockbox looks and the way it plays music. The details of this menu are covered in section 8 page Theme Settings The Theme Settings menu contains options that control the visual appearance of Rockbox.

The details of this menu are covered in section 9 page Recording Settings The Recording Settings menu allows you to congure settings related to recording. The details of this menu are covered in detail in section 10 page Manage Settings The Manage Settings option allows the saving and re-loading of user conguration settings, browsing the hard drive for alternate rmwares, and nally resetting your player back to initial conguration.

The details of this menu are covered in section The Recording Screen shows the time elapsed and the size of the le being recorded. A peak meter is present to allow you set gain correctly. There is also a volume setting, this will only aect the output level of the player and does not aect the recorded sound. If enabled in the peak meter settings, a counter in front of the peak meters shows the number of times the clip indicator was activated during recording.

The counter is reset to zero when starting a new recording. The frequency and channels settings are shown in the status bar. The controls for this screen are:. Adjust selected setting. Start recording. While recording: pause recording press again to continue.

Exit Recording Screen. While recording: Stop recording. While recording: close the current le and open a new one. Open Recording Settings see section 10 page Generally all american models do, but european models might not. Rockbox will display the radio menu only if it can nd a radio receiver in your Sansa.

This menu option switches to the radio screen. The FM radio has the ability to remember station frequency settings presets. Since stations and their frequencies vary depending on location, it is possible to load these settings from a le. Such les should have the lename extension. To load the settings, i.

Some preset les are available here: ZFmPresets. It is also possible to record the FM radio while listening. At this point, you will be switched to the Recording Screen. Further information on Recording can be found in section 5. Seek to next station in SCAN mode. Change volume. Leave the radio screen with the radio playing. Stop the radio and return to Main Menu. Mute radio playback. Open a list of radio presets.

You can view all the presets that you have, and switch to the station. Display the FM radio settings menu. Saving a preset: Up to 64 of your favourite stations can be saved as presets. Long Select to go to the menu, then select Add preset. Enter the name maximum number of characters is Press Play to save.

Selecting a preset: Select to go to the presets list. Use Left to leave the preset list without selecting anything. Removing a preset: Select to go to the presets list. Note: The radio will turn o when starting playback of an audio le. Playlists This menu allows you to work with playlists.

Playlists can be created in three ways. Playing a le in a directory causes all the les in it to be placed in a playlist. Playlists can be created manually by either using the Context Menu see section 4. Both automatically and manually created playlists can be edited using this menu.

Create Playlist: Rockbox will create a playlist with all tracks in the current directory and all sub-directories. The playlist will be created one directory level up from where you currently are. View Current Playlist: Displays the contents of the playlist currently stored in memory. Save Current Playlist: Saves the current dynamic playlist, excluding queued tracks, to the specied le.

If no path is provided then playlist is saved to the current directory. View Catalog: Provides a simple interface to maintain several playlists see section 4. Plugins With this option you can load and run various plugins that have been written for Rockbox. There are a wide variety of these supplied with Rockbox, including several games, some impressive demos and a number of utilities. A detailed description of the dierent plugins is to be found in section 11 page System Time and Date: Time related menu options.

Sleep Timer: The Sleep Timer powers o your player after playing for a given time. It can be set from Off to 5 hours in 5 minute steps. The Sleep Timer is reset on boot. Time Format: Choose 12 or 24 hour clock. Rockbox Info: Displays some basic system information. This is, from top to bottom, the amount of memory Rockbox has available for storing music the buer. The battery status. Memory size and amount of free space on the two data volumes, this info is given separately for internal memory Int and for a plugged in memory card MSD.

The Main Menu Credits: Display the list of contributors. Running Time: Shows the runtime of your player in hours, minutes and seconds. Running Time: This item shows the cumulative overall runtime of your player since you either disconnected it from charging in Rockbox or manually reset this item. A manual reset is done through pressing any button, followed by pressing Select or Right. Top Time: This item shows the cumulative overall runtime of your player since you last manually reset this item.

Debug Keep Out! It shows hardware, disk, battery status and other technical information. Warning: It is not recommended that users access this menu unless instructed to do so in the course of xing a problem with Rockbox. If you think you have messed up your settings by use of this menu please try to reset all settings before asking for help.

Quick Screen Although the Quick Screen is accessible from nearly everywhere, not just the Main Menu, it is worth mentioning here. It allows rapid access to your four favourite settings. The default settings are Shuffle section 7 page 58 , Repeat section 7 page 58 and the Show Files section 8.

To change the options, navigate through the menus to the setting you want to add and press Long Select. In the menu which appears you will be given options to place the setting on the Quick Screen. Press Long Submenu to access it and Select to exit. The direction buttons will modify the individual setting values as indicated by the arrow icons. Please note that the settings at opposite sides of the screen cycle through the available options in opposite directions. Therefore if you select the same setting at e.

The sound settings menu oers a selection of sound settings you may change to customise your listening experience. Volume This setting adjusts the volume of your music. Like most professional audio gear and many consumer audio products, Rockbox uses a decibel scale where 0 dB is a reference that indicates the maximum volume that the player can produce without possible distortion clipping.

All values lower than this reference will be negative and yield a progressively softer volume. Values higher than 0 dB are available and can be used to raise the volume more than would otherwise be possible. These volume levels will ordinarily lead to distorted sound, but might work nicely for music that has an otherwise low volume level. Bass This setting emphasises or suppresses the lower bass frequencies in the sound. A value of 0 dB means that bass sounds are unaltered at response.

The minimum setting is dB and the maximum is 24 dB. Treble This setting emphasises or suppresses the higher treble frequencies in the sound. A value of 0 dB means that treble sounds are unaltered at response. Balance This setting controls the balance between the left and right channels. The default, 0, means that the left and right outputs are equal in volume.

Negative numbers increase the volume of the left channel relative to the right, positive numbers increase the volume of the right channel relative to the left. Channels A stereo audio signal consists of two channels, left and right. The Channels setting determines if these channels are to be combined in any way, and if so, in what manner they will be combined.

Available options are: Stereo. Leave the audio signal unmodied. Combine both channels and send the resulting signal to both stereo channels, resulting in a monophonic output. Allows you to manually specify a stereo width with the Stereo Width setting described later in this chapter.

Mono Left. Plays the left channel in both stereo channels. Mono Right. Plays the right channel in both stereo channels. Removes all sound that is common to both channels. Since most music is recorded with vocals being equally present in both channels to make the singer sound centrally placed, this often but not always has the eect of removing the voice track from a song. This setting also very often has other undesirable eects on the sound.

Stereo Width Stereo width allows you to manually specify the eect that is applied when the Channels setting is set to custom. This has the eect of widening the stereo eld. Crossfeed Crossfeed attempts to make the experience of listening to music on headphones more similar to listening to music with stereo speakers. When you listen to music through speakers, each ear will hear sound originating from both speakers.

However, the sound from the left speaker reaches your right ear slightly later than it does your left ear, and vice versa. The human ear and brain together are very good at interpreting the time dierences between direct sounds and reected sounds and using that information to identify the direction that the sound is coming from. On the other hand, when listening to headphones, each ear hears only the stereo channel corresponding to it. The left ear hears only the left channel and the right ear hears only the right channel.

The result is that sound from headphones does not provide the same spatial cues to your ear and brain as speakers, and might for that reason sound unnatural to some listeners. The crossfeed function uses an algorithm to feed a delayed and ltered portion of the signal from the right channel into the left channel and vice versa in order to simulate the spatial cues that the ear and brain receive when listening to a set of loudspeakers placed in front of the listener.

The result is a more natural stereo image that can be especially appreciated in older rock and jazz records, where one instrument is often hard-panned to just one of the speakers. Many people will nd such records tiring to listen to using earphones and no crossfeed eect. Crossfeed has the following settings: Crossfeed. Selects whether the crossfeed eect is to be enabled or not. Direct Gain. How much the level of the audio that travels the direct path from a speaker to the corresponding ear is supposed to be decreased.

Cross Gain. How much the level of the audio that travels the cross path from a speaker to the opposite ear is to be decreased. High-Frequency Attenuation. How much the upper frequencies of the cross path audio will be dampened. Note that the total level of the higher frequencies will be a combination of both this setting and the Cross Gain setting. High-Frequency Cuto. Decides at which frequency the cross path audio will start to be cut by the amount described by the High-Frequency Attenuation setting.

Most users will nd the default settings to yield satisfactory results, but for the more adventurous user the settings can be ne-tuned to provide a virtual speaker placement suited to ones preference. Beware that the crossfeed function is capable of making the audio distort if you choose settings which result in a too high output level. Rockbox features a parametric equalizer EQ. As the name suggests, a parametric EQ lets you control several dierent parameters for each band of the EQ.

In some ways the EQ is similar to the Bass and Treble settings described earlier, but the EQ allows you to control the sound much more carefully. Rockboxs parametric EQ is composed of ve dierent bands: Band 0: Low shelf lter.

The low shelf lter boosts or lowers all frequencies below a certain frequency limit, much as the bass control found on ordinary stereo systems does. Adjust the cuto frequency parameter to decide where the shelving starts to take eect.

For example, a cuto frequency of 50 Hz will adjust only very low frequencies. A cuto frequency of Hz, on the other hand, will adjust a much wider range of bass frequencies. The gain parameter controls how much the loudness of the band is adjusted. Positive numbers make the EQ band louder, while negative numbers make that EQ band quieter. The Q parameter should always be set to 0.

Higher values will add a small boost around the cuto frequency that is almost always undesirable. Bands Peaking lters. Peaking EQ lters boost or lower a frequency range centered at the centre frequency chosen. Graphic equalizers in home stereos are usually peaking lters. The centre parameter controls the centre frequency of the frequency range that is aected as described above.

The gain parameter controls how much each band is adjusted, and works as for the low shelf lter. Finally, the Q parameter controls how wide or narrow the aected frequency range is. Higher Q values will aect a narrower band of frequencies, while lower Q values will aect a wider band of frequencies. Band 4: High shelf lter. A high shelf lter boosts or lowers all frequencies above a certain frequency limit, much as the treble control found on ordinary stereo systems does. The high shelf lter is adjusted the same way as the low shelf lter, except that it works on the high end of the frequency spectrum rather than the low end.

As a general guide, EQ band 0 should be used for low frequencies, EQ bands 1 through 3 should be used for mids, and EQ band 4 should be used for highs. Enable EQ. This option controls whether the EQ is on or o. Daenerys Targaryen arrives in Astapor, a slaver city, and encounters another assassination attempt on her life, only to be saved by Barristan "The Bold" Selmy.

Bran continues to have dreams of a three-eyed raven. He meets Jojen Reed, who can see the future. Jojen tells Bran he is a warg — someone that can communicate with animals. Catelyn Stark gets word that her father, Lord Tully of Riverrun, has died.

Robb's army will now march north for the funeral. Catelyn also expresses her guilt over the dark cloud on the Stark family, feeing responsible since she prayed for Jon Snow to die when he was just an infant. The Brotherhood take them to their hideout where Arya finds one of their other prisoners — the Hound.

The Hound is the first one in a long time to recognize Arya for who she really is. At their meeting, Sansa gives the Tyrell women what they want - information about Joffrey. Jaime Lannister finally gets his hands on one of Brienne of Tarth's swords, and even in shackles he puts up a valiant fight. Before the swordfight ends, they are captured by House Bolden, bannermen loyal to Robb Stark. Theon Greyjoy, after unsuccessfully reinforcing his tenure as Lord of Winterfell, is tortured — including getting his fingernails ripped out.

After previously handing Tyrion a verbal smackdown when asking for the seat at Casterly Rock, Tywin Lannister shocks the realm by appointing Tyrion Master of the Coin. Robb Stark, despite his numerous battle victories, meets with strategists to plan their next attack — but Robb knows that no number of victories will help him as long as Tywin Lannister is still alive. What members of the Night's Watch remain double back to the Wall, stopping once again at Craster's Keep. There, they find Craster has become even more unstable - and also find one of Craster's many wives in labor.

Danerys, desperate for an army, makes the leader of the slave army an offer she hopes he can't refuse - one of her dragons. While captives of the Brave Companion, Brienne is attacked with the presumption that she will be raped by her and Jaime Lannister's captors. After hearing her desperate screams, Jaime tells the leader of the Brave Companion of Brienne's wealthy lineage.

He stops the attack once he knows he might have more at his hands than he thought. Jaime continues to bargain with the Brave Companion's leader, offering him wealth and power. In the end, the Kingslayer's words, unlike his brother Tyrion's, get him nowhere. Instead, his words cost him his hand. Knowing that Jaime Lannister is worth far more alive than dead doesn't stop his captors from beating him while the Kingslayer wears his severed arm around his neck.

When Jaime whines and wants to give up, Brienne reminds him that the silver spoon has fallen from his mouth, and this is the real world — a world where you have to fight for the things that are important to you. Theon Greyjoy is on the move after escaping and being rescued by an unknown friend, who says his sister is waiting for him with open arms. Instead he is once more delivered into the hands of vicious torturers.

Varys, with the help of Ros, deduces that Littlefinger plans to take Sansa Stark with him to the Eyrie as a power play to secure an army in case Sansa's brother Robb falls. In an attempt to undermine him, Varys and Olenna, Queen of Thornes, step in knowing which move to play — have Sansa marry Loras Tyrell. The Night's Watch is still holed up at Craster's waiting for their wounded to heal.

Tired of Craster's condescension and their own starvation, a Crow kills Craster, starting a fight that ends in the death of many — including the Lord Commander. It gives Sam the opportunity to run away with Gilly and her newborn son. Daenerys, having bought herself an army in exchange for one of her dragons, inspects her 8, soldiers.

Speaking Valyrian, Dany instructs her newly acquired army to slay their former masters and free all the salves in the city. Her dragon burns the city, and the soldiers agree in unison to fight for her as free men as they march from Astapor. The Hound and Arya see firsthand what the Lord of Light is capable of — bringing back Beric Dondarrion to life after The Hound seemingly kills him in a trial by combat.

Jon Snow continues to try and shed his Crow reputation. Ygritte assists him — by taking him to a cave and helping him break his Night's Watch vow of celibacy. Stannis visits his disturbed wife, who keeps their three fetal sons preserved in large jars. His guilt is erased when she tells him she knows about his affair with Melisandre, and couldn't be happier that the fire priestess gave him a son, since she never could.

Jaime Lannister has his arm tended to, and joins Brienne in the large bathing bath. Initially mortified, Brienne stands up to Jaime, which prompts him to apologize, ask for a truce and tell her the story of how he became he Kingslayer. Jaime explains that as a member of the King's Guard, he was asked by the merciless Mad King to murder his own father after Tywin Lannister abandoned the Targaryen's and joined Robert Baratheon's forces.

He chose to save the life of his father and prevent the Mad King from burning the city's people alive, only to be seen by Ned Stark — which initiated Ned's dislike for Jaime. Tywin Lannister believes the two young Stark sons are dead, and that Sansa is the heir to Winterfell.

In an effort to prevent the Tyrells from landing Sansa as a member of their family, Tywin orders Tryion to wed her before she can be married off to Loras Tyrell. However, that doesn't mean that Loras Tyrell won't have a new wife soon. Tywin then tells the smug Queen Regent, Cersei, that she will wed him instead. Robb Stark beheads Lord Karstark after he and his mean murdered two Lannister boys in cold blood. When Karstark lost his head, Robb Stark lost half his forces. He tells his wife Talisa he now knows the only person that can help him is Walden Frey — the father of the woman he had promised to marry.

Bran Stark and co. A squabble between Osha and Meere Reed erupts but is squashed when Jojen Reed experiences a vision- an experience that results in a seizure. Jon Snow, Ygritte and a group of Wildlings prepare to climb the feet of solid ice that makes up the Wall.

She acknowledges to him privately that she knows he isn't ready to betray the Night's Watch. She doesn't mind - as long as he never betrays her. Theon's mysterious torturer continues to play games with Lord Greyjoy. He tells Theon a mix of lies and truths, the only one of which Theon can believe is that, "If you think this has a happy ending, you haven't been paying attention.

Melisandre has gotten word that Thoros has brought Beric back to life six times under the power of the Lord of Light. She meets up with the Brotherhood without Banners empty handed, but leaves with Gendry Robert Baratheon's illegitimate son. Instead, she will be kept and tried for treason. Tywin Lannister meets with Olenna Tyrell to come to terms on his marriage demands to take Sansa away from Loras's marriage bed and put Cersei there, and match Sansa with Tyrion.

Olenna agrees to the matches - but only after Tywin threatens to assign Loras to the King's Guard, where he will have no children and no way to carry on the Tyrell name. Littlefinger reveals to Varys that he knows Ros was feeding him information - the punishment for Littlefinger's former prostitute and right hand? Death by three arrows strategically shot at her courtesy of King Joffrey and his crossbow. Jon Snow and Ygritte are nearly sacrificed scaling the Wall after a downfall of ice disrupts their climbing party.

They manage to survive the setback and make it to the top of the Wall with what is left of their Wildling party. Robb Stark and his men are making their way toward Walden Frey and the Twins for the arranged wedding between Frey's daughter and Robb's uncle, Edmure Tully.

During a rain delay, Talisa tells her husband Robb that while he carries the Northern army, she carries his child. After giving up Gendry to Melisandre for some gold, the Brotherhood Without Banners plan to travel to Riverrun, where they intend to hand Arya over to her family for ransom. Arya takes her fate into her own hands and escapes - even after accidentally running into the Hound. Gendry and Melisandre travel back to Storm's End, a stone's throw from the one place Gendry was trying to escape - King's Landing.

It's here that Gendry learns that his father was none other than King Robert Baratheon. Daenerys arrives at the Yellow City. She meets with Razdal mo Eraz to negotiate peace — which to her means Eraz setting free his , slaves. He warns Dany that many armies have tried to take his fortified city. Roose Bolton orders his men to take Jaime back to King's Landing as long as he releases the Stark girls when he gets there , but unexpectedly races back to Harrnehal when he hears that Brienne is in dire, maybe deathly, trouble.

Jaime arrives to find Brienne armed with only a wooden sword facing off against a bear for the enjoyment of the Brave Companions. Jaime, armed with nothing and with only one hand, jumps into the arena and helps hoist Brienne out. Jaime convinces his escort to let him and Brienne both go to King's Landing, otherwise face the wrath of disobeying Lord Bolton's orders. Arya attempts to smash the Hound's head with a rock while he sleeps. He tells her she can try, but if she fails, he will break her hands.

With that behind them, the duo make their way to the Twins, where the Hound intends to sell Arya back to her family — so long as she stops trying to immaturely kill him along the way. Daenerys meets with the three leaders of the Second Sons, an army of 2, soldiers.

She gives their vugar leader, Mero, two days to decide whether to join forces with her, or go to battle with her army of 8, Unsullied. Cersei's tolerance for Margeary is running low — especially when Margaery calls Cersei her sister. The Queen assures her that if she ever calls her that again, she will have her strangled in her sleep.

For the first time, Margaery seems rattled. Melisandre lures Gendry into bed where she then ties him up and puts leeches on his chest. She reminds him that he has the blood of Kings running through him — and she wants the blood. Sansa and Tyrion grudgingly wed. Joffrey walks Sansa down the aisle, and reinforces her fear of him by telling her he may just pay her a late night visit and have his way with her — even if it means holding her down while it happens.

Mero decides the best way to deal with Dany is to kill her, and Daario Naharis, one of the three leaders, is chosen to do it. He shows up at Dany's camp while she is bathing, and just when it looks like he is about to kill her, he dumps Mero's head on the ground. They join forces, making Dany's army 10, strong.

At the wedding reception, Tyrion drinks his weight in wine and threatens Joffrey after the Boy King insists on having a bedding ceremony for the reluctant newlyweds. Tyrion can't consummate his marriage to Sansa — and won't until she is ready. Samwell, Gilly and her baby stop for the night on their way to the Wall. While they discuss possible baby names, crows begin to crowd their campsite to the point of distraction. Samwell investigates only to find a White Walker on the hunt for Gilly's baby.

Sam kills the White Walker with the arrowhead he carries with him — and the crows disappear. Walder Frey and his extensive family welcome the Starks to the Twins, although his welcome feels more like a forewarning — like Frey might still be harboring ill feelings toward Robb, even though Frey is abiding by the sacred laws of hospitality. Dany puts her trust in Daario, who leads Jorah and Grey Worm the captain of the Unsullied through the back gates of the city in hopes of taking it as her own.

Despite hesitations from Jorah, Daario proves his allegiance to his Queen through fighting and not betraying Jorah and Grey Worm — they return and he tells her the city has been won. Arya and the Hound have also made it to the Twins, where Arya's mother, brother and sister-in-law are preparing for the wedding between one of Walder Frey's daughters who are notoriously unattractive and Edmure Tully.

Arya stares longingly and anxiously at the Twins while she and the Hound rest — the Hound tells her to relax — it's not like her family is going anywhere. Jon Snow and the Wildlings, recovered from their climb over the Wall, are making progress south. First up, the Wildlings plan to ambush and kill an old man who breeds horses for the Night's Watch.

Walder Frey presents Edmure Tully with his bride — who to the surprise of everyone — is a young, beautiful girl. Frey gives Robb, the would-be groom, a sly smile. Bran and co. While inside, the Wildlings arrive outside in pursuit of the horse breeder.

Hodor, the gentle giant of Bran's crew, becomes frightened during the storm and begins to shout — alerting the Wildlings to their presence. Bran is able to possess him and calm him down — something Jojen Reed tells him no Warg, and no other man, is capable of doing. The wedding reception has begun, and the bride and groom look to be in marital bliss — much like Robb and his pregnant wife Talisa.

She tells Robb that she has the perfect name for their baby if it is a son — little Ned Stark. Catelynn Stark notices that the music in the reception hall has changed to The Rains of Castemere, and the doors to the reception hall are shut. She turns to Lord Bolton, and realizes he is wearing chainmail. The Wildings, outside of Bran's tower, have cornered the horse breeder. Still unsure of Jon Snow's allegiance, the Wildlings make him kill the old man. When Jon hesitates, a fight breaks out.

Jon kills most of the wildlings Bran helps by unknowingly possessing Jon's direwolf , and takes off on horseback — leaving Ygritte behind. One of Frey's men comes up behind Talisa and repeatedly stabs her swollen belly. His men rain down arrows on Robb Stark and his officers. Catelynn and Robb are barely alive, but Catelynn manages to grab Frey's wife and hold a knife to her throat. She tells Frey to let Robb go or his wife will have her throat slit.

Frey assures Catelynn he can find another wife. Lord Bolton then stabs Robb Stark while telling him "the Lannisters send their regards. Arya witnesses Frey's men killing her brother's direwolf. Before she can rush into the castle to see what has happened to her family, the Hound comes to take her away.

The King in the North is dead - but Arya Stark manages to escape her family's murderers with the Hound. Before they can get out of town she sees Robb's body being paraded around - except his head has been replaced by that of his direwolf.

Ramsay has an unusual taste for torture, and sends Theon's father, Lord Balon Greyjoy what appears to be a dismembered part of Theon - "Theon's favorite toy. Yara, Theon's sister, tries to convince her father to send a rescue team to save Theon. Her words fall on deaf ears, as Lord Greyjoy asserts that Theon isn't a man anymore.

Despite her father's words, Yara assembles a team of her own to save her brother. During a small council meeting, Tywin Lannister continues to assert that he, not Joffrey or Cersei or Tyrion, has sole control. Tywin holds Tyrion after the meeting to tell him what Tyrion already knows - he needs to have a son with Sansa. In the meantime, Roose Bolton will be named Warden of the North. Tywin tells Tyrion he behaves the way he does because he makes sacrifices for his family.

In Tywin's mind, one of those sacrifices was resisting the urge to drown his imp son when he was born. Arya and the Hound are now on the move, and stumble across some Frey bannermen around a fire. One is bragging about how he sewed the wolf's head onto Robb's body. Arya responds by sticking him full of holes with a knife she took from the Hound. Her rage at the murders of her family is evident - the Hound simply tells her to let him know the next time she plans on killing a man.

Bran, Hodor, Meera and Jojen take shelter for the night and have some unlikely company - Sam and Gilly, making their way to Castle Black. Sam recognizes Bran as Jon Snow's younger brother, but can't convince Bran to abandon his plan to head north of the Wall. Instead, Sam sends the group on their way north with dragon glass - the weapon he used to kill a White Walker.

Jon Snow, having escaped his fight with the Wildlings, stops for water—but is found by Ygritte. He tells her he knows she won't hurt him, to which she replys "You know nothing Jon Snow. He barely makes it alive to Castle Black.

After being separated since the first season, Cersei and Jaime are reunited - but how will Cersei adjust to her one-handed lover? And what does this mean for Brienne? Lord Davos has learned to read with the help of Stannis's daughter. He reads a letter from Castle Black - and immediately shows Stannis. The Night's Watch needs help, and Stannis's army is on its way north to do just that - but not before Davos releases Gendry, knowing that Melisandre intends to use him as a human sacrifice.

Daenerys has proved she is a force to be reckoned with - but has also proven that she is a leader that can be loved. The slaves of Yunkai embrace her, lift her up, and chant "mhysa," which means "mother. Tywin Lannister melts down the Stark family's ancestral sword, Ice, and has it reforged into two new swords.

One of these swords is given to his son, Jaime, who refuses to retire to Casterly Rock despite his father's wishes. Tyrion Lannister, Podrick and Bronn learn that Prince Oberyn Martell has arrived to claim a seat on the small council on behalf of his brother…while seeking vengeance on the Mountain for the murder of his sister.

Sansa Stark, devastated by the murder of her brother, seeks comfort at the godswood where she is encountered by Dontos Hollard. Dontos, knight-turned-fool, gives Sansa his family necklace in gratitude for saving his life on Joffrey's name-day celebration. Ygritte and Tormund plan their next move when they are joined by Styr and his wildling cannibals.

Jon admits to killing Qhorin Halfhand and "consorting" with Ygritte — all in service of revealing the wildlings' plans. Jon is pardoned despite his actions. Daenerys Targaryen struggles to control her dragons and grant freedom to those that are enslaved.

On the road to Meereen, she discovers that slaves are being nailed to every mile marker leading up to the city. Wresting the stolen sword "Needle" from one of the men, Arya and The Hound set out on horseback. Roose Bolton sets a plan in motion to eliminate the remaining Stark children. Bran, Hodor, Jojen and Meera continue on their journey. Tapping into his powers, Bran has a vision of a three-eyed Raven, the specter of his father and a sight of dragons flying over King's Landing.

From this, Bran reveals that he knows where the group must go next. Stannis Baratheon complies with the wishes of his consort, Melisandre, and allows several loyal subjects to be burned as tribute to the Lord of Light.

Stannis's devotion to Melisandre and her calling are put to question by his own daughter Shireen who, despite being so young, is suspicious of Melisandre. Tywin presents Joffrey with the second sword forged from the melted remains of Ice. During the proceedings, Joffrey seeks to humiliate his uncle Tyrion by enlisting him as cupbearer. Upon drinking from the goblet handed off by Tyrion, Joffrey experiences a fatal reaction and dies on the spot.

Tyrion stands accused. Dontos and Sansa flee the city after the murder of Joffrey. Sansa is taken to Petyr Baelish, the man responsible for the conspiracy against Joffrey's life. Revealing the necklace to be part of the ruse, Baelish executes Dontos for his part in the regicide. The wildlings attack a small village with the help of Ygritte. Amidst the battle, a small boy named Olly is taken captive after his parents are murdered.

Styr releases the boy to deliver a warning to Castle Black in hopes of drawing the Night's Watch out into the open. Daenerys arrives outside the walls of Meereen where her army is met by the city's champion. Daario slays the champion handily on her behalf. She then orders her catapults to bombard the city, flinging barrels full of broken slave collars onto the streets of Meereen.

Jaime Lannister believes in his brother's innocence. However, he is unable to convince his sister Cersei of the same. Fearing for Sansa's life, which is now in danger, he dispatches Podrick and Brienne. He also gives Brienne new armor and his own Valyrian steel sword — Oathkeeper. Jon volunteers, instead, along with Edd, Grenn and a new recruit…Locke. Daenerys dispatches Grey Worm and other Unsullied to infiltrate Meereen and arm the slaves with weaponry.

A slave rebellion is incited and the city falls to Daenerys. In retribution for past cruelty, she orders the crucifixion of of the surviving masters. Bran and his companions follow the sound of a crying baby. Unable to intervene in the child sacrifice, Bran and his group are taken captive by the traitors.

Tommen Baratheon is crowned king and is to marry Margaery in a fortnight. Tywin puts together plans for the marriage between Cersei and Loras Tyrell. However, concerns over the reigning debt owed to the Iron Bank of Braavos are never far from Tywin's mind.

The Lannister-Tyrell union is meant to rectify this. Lady Lysa Arryn receives them and expresses her desire to marry Petyr…especially after all that she has done for him. These include poisoning her husband, Lord Jon Arryn, and implicating the Lannisters in the act. The towns of Astapor and Yunkai have fallen back into their old ways of slavery.

Daenerys will not allow this to go unanswered and swears that she will rule Slaver's Bay. Jon and his group attack Craster's keep. Locke slips away to kill Bran and his friends who have been taken captive. In the confusion, Bran uses his warg abilities and possesses Hodor.

Using Hodor's strength, he kills Locke. Meanwhile, Jon and Karl fight to the death. With the help of one of Craster's widows, Jon is able to defeat Karl. Heavy weighs the crown for Daenerys as she must repair the damages done by her renegade dragon.

She also must deal with the destructive aftermath brought on by the insurrections she has caused. Yara Greyjoy and her men attempt to kill Ramsay and rescue Reek formerly Theon. Reek, however, refuses to escape with Yara and she must come to grips with the reality that her brother is truly dead. In reward for his loyalty, Ramsay gives Reek a new mission…where he must play the role of a man he no longer is: Theon Greyjoy.

Jaime Lannister bargains for Tyrion's life by offering to return to Casterly Rock as was previously asked. Tywin agrees to let Tyrion be spared to join the Night's Watch…if he admits to being guilty. Tyrion refuses and, during his trial, lashes out against the people before demanding trial by combat to decide his fate. Tyrion's fate will be decided through a battle of champions. Prince Oberyn Martell steps up to fight on behalf of Tyrion…and get revenge for his sister.

Arya and The Hound are attacked by a group of criminals who were once destined for the Night's Watch. After the fight, the Hound is wounded and Arya must stitch him up. Petyr arrives and talks her out of this. Mole's Town, where Sam hid Gilly and her child, is attacked by Styr and the rest of the wildlings. Ygritte notices Gilly has a child and hides her from the marauders. With the destruction of Mole's Town, the Night's Watch must prepare for the inevitable assault. Reek, masquerading as his former self, enters Moat Cailin as Theon Greyjoy.

He offers terms of surrender to the Ironborn that are holed up in the area. After much deliberation, he is able to secure their surrender and eventual slaughter. In recognition for his work, Ramsay is legitimized by his father, Lord Roose Bolton.

Ser Jorah, a close confidant to Daenerys, is found to be spying for King's Landing. Daenerys exiles Jorah from Meereen. Petyr Baelish is questioned about the murder of Lysa. Petyr claims it was a suicide and Sansa backs him up.

Meanwhile, The Hound and Arya arrive only to learn that Lysa is dead and they will find no assistance in the Vale. Prince Oberyn fights The Mountain for the life of Tyrion. When it seems like Oberyn's superior skill and agility have won the day, he makes a foolish error in judgment and pays dearly.

The Mountain crushes Oberyn's skull and Tyrion is sentenced for regicide. The wildlings attack Castle Black with more than just men — giants and their wooly mammoths are also brought to the battle. Ser Alliser takes command but is wounded in the battle.

In the chaos, Jon fights with Styr and arises victorious. Ygritte, however, has him dead to rights with her bow and is about to finish what she started when she is shot by none other than Olly — the boy that was spared. The rest of the wildlings are driven off.

Drogon, one of Daenerys's dragons, has run rampant, killing livestock and, now, people. Unable to secure Drogon, she reluctantly chains her other two dragons in the catacombs where they can do no harm. Stannis Baratheon, having secured necessary funds from the Iron Bank of Braavos, arrives to help overrun the wildling encampment.

Jon Snow is there to help facilitate Mance Rayder's surrender to Stannis. Bran Stark and his companions journey to a large Heart Tree. However Jojen is killed by a group of undead. Tyrion Lannister escapes the dungeon with the help of his brother, Jaime. Instead of using this opportunity to flee, Tyrion seeks out his father and shoots him with a crossbow after strangling Shae. Varys then helps smuggle Tyrion to Essos. Brienne and Podrick catch up with Arya and The Hound, but the encounter turns hostile when loyalties are called into question.

After a legendary brawl, Brienne gains the upper hand and shoves The Hound off a cliff. Arya emerges after the fight and finds The Hound. She refuses The Hound's request for a quick death; instead robbing him. Cersei and Jaime Lannister pay their respects to Tywin. Cersei confronts her brother for freeing Tyrion and accidentally killing their father.

Tyrion Lannister and Varys arrive in Pentos. Varys reveals that he had been working in secret with Illyrio Mopatis to eventually restore Daenerys Targaryen to the Iron Throne. A group of Unsullied remove the garish gold harpy from the top of the Great Pyramid of Meereen. Later, one of the Unsullied is murdered in a brothel by a member of the Sons of the Harpy — a resistance group operating in Meereen. Daenerys orders that the murdered soldier be buried in the Temple of the Graces in retaliation.

Jon Snow is training young Olly in the ways of the sword when he is summoned by Melisandre and brought before Stannis Baratheon. Stannis intends to conscript the remaining wildlings in his campaign to seize the Iron Throne, but he will need the wildling leader Mance Rayder to bend the knee. He asks Jon to make that happen. The little Lord Robyn Arryn is left in Lord Yohn Royce's hands, but no one is optimistic that the boy will improve as a ward. Cousin Lancel Lannister resurfaces to Cersei and reveals that he has found religion with the Sparrows, a cult.

He also reveals the part he played in drugging Robert Baratheon's wine, which got the King gored by a boar. Cersei denies any knowledge of the matter. Varys convinces Tyrion to make something out of his newfound freedom and accompany him to Meereen to meet Daenerys. Hizdahr zo Loraq returns from a diplomatic mission in Yunkai with news that the Wise Masters will cede power to a joint council of former slaves and former masters.

Of course, this is in exchange for the reopening of the fighting pits, which Daenerys vehemently opposes. Daario Naharis changes her mind about the pits saying that he achieved his skill and worth in just such an arena. Later, Daenerys attempts to commune with her two chained dragons but they respond with anger and attempt to kill her. Jon is unable to convince Mance to bend the knee to Stannis. Since Mance will not sacrifice the lives of his people for a foreign war, he is sentenced to burn alive.

Melisandre lights the pyre, but Mance's suffering is fleeting — cut short by an arrow loosed by Jon. She presents the doorman with the coin given to her by Jaqen H'ghar, but is turned away. Brienne pledges her services to Sansa but is flatly refused. Lord Baelish attempts to take Brienne and Podrick into custody, but the two fight their way out of the inn.

Sansa and Lord Baelish escape. Cersei and Jaime receive an ornate threat on Myrcella Baratheon's life. The threat originated from Dorne where Myrcella is currently living. Jaime is dispatched to rescue the girl and he enlists the aid of Bronn. Ellaria Sand seethes at the sight of Trystan Martell and Myrcella walking together. With the memory of her husband's murder fresh in her mind, she demands that Prince Doran Martell take action against the Lannisters.

Doran refuses her pleas and she leaves in a huff. Daario and Grey Worm capture a member of the Sons of the Harpy. Barristan Selmy advises Daenerys to show mercy and grant the malcontent a trial. He uses the infamy of her father to further drive the point. Tyrion and Varys reflect on the dwarf's brief tenure as Hand of the King. Tyrion laments not having left King's Landing when he had the chance and puts his thoughts toward the matter at hand — Volantis and, then, Meereen. Cersei temporarily holds the position of Hand of the King until King Tommen Baratheon can appoint someone.

When she tries to appoint her uncle Kevan Lannister as Master of War, he declines. He then leaves, admitting that he does not recognize Cersei's authority. Meanwhile, Stannis offers to legitimize Jon and give him Winterfell if he pledges his allegiance.

Later, the Night's Watch holds an election for a new Lord Commander. Arya wanders the streets of Braavos when she is accosted by a group of men. She prepares to do battle when the doorman from the House of Black and White intervenes. When she questions him, he reveals himself to be Jaqen. He then admits her into the House of Black and White. Mossador, a former slave and subject of Daenerys, crucifies the member of the Sons of the Harpy before the trial.

He is executed before the people of Meereen, which causes a massive riot between former slaves and nobles. Daenerys escapes to her chambers and, later that night, receives a brief visit from an old friend — her black dragon, Drogon. Arya grows restless within the walls of the House of Black and White. She witnesses Jaqen giving another man water. Within moments, that man dies while praying and is carried away. Tommen Baratheon and Margaery Tyrell are wed. That night, they consummate their marriage and Margaery begins to drive a wedge between Cersei and her son.

The next day, Tommen tells Cersei that he wants her to return to Casterly Rock since he does not believe she is happy at King's Landing. Reek — formerly Theon Greyjoy — wanders the streets as the castle is being reconstructed. Roose Bolton discusses his political situation with his son, Ramsay. It is decided that Ramsay must marry in order to forge new alliances. Initially, she refuses until he convinces her to comply in order to seek vengeance. Little do either of them realize that they are being followed by Brienne and Podrick.

As the new Lord Commander of the Night's Watch, Jon must refuse Stannis's offer to be legitimized in return for turning the wildlings over to their side. Stannis grudgingly accepts this but warns of Ser Alliser. Arya must give up her possessions in order to truly become no one — to begin her training.

She discards her clothes but hides her sword, Needle. When she returns to sweeping the halls of the House, she is shown to a room by Jaqen and tasked with cleansing a dead body. Sansa meets Ramsay and manages to feign delight at the sight of Roose. Meanwhile, she is watched by Ramsay's harem and Reek. Jon's first order of business is appointing Ser Alliser to the role of First Ranger.

Next, he tries to assign Janos Slynt to a ruin called Greyguard. When Janos petulantly refuses, he is taken outside where he is to be executed. Despite begging for mercy, Jon beheads him. The High Septon is found in a brothel and is publicly humiliated by the Sparrows. Word of this reaches the small council and Cersei meets with High Sparrow — the religious movement's leader — to inform him that he will not be punished…the High Septon, however, has been imprisoned.

Later, Cersei has Qyburn deliver a message to Lord Baelish. As she leaves, a seemingly lifeless body in Qyburn's lab stirs. Ramsay promises Lord Baelish that he will not harm Sansa. Later, Roose and Lord Baelish discuss the ramifications of their plotting. Lord Baelish believes that, without Tywin, the Lannisters' days are numbered. Tyrion and Varys arrive at Volantis. A red priestess spots Tyrion and the two decide to take refuge in a brothel. While Tyrion relieves himself, the dwarf is apprehended by Jorah Mormont who is intent on bringing him to Daenerys.

Jaime and Bronn set sail for Dorne. Bronn, then, presses Jaime on just how Tyrion was freed. When the topic of Jaime's brother comes up, the Kingslayer grows cold, vowing to kill the dwarf when he finds him. Mace Tyrell is dispatched to negotiate the debt with the Iron Bank. Cersei meets with High Sparrow and authorizes the revival of the Faith Militant. As the Faith Militant sweep through the streets, punishing those they deem sinful, Ser Loras Tyrell is apprehended.

King Tommen is unable to pardon him despite Margaery's demands. Jon handles the paperwork fitting for his new position as Lord Commander. Melisandre arrives to ask for Jon's assistance in Stannis's campaign against the Boltons. She then tries to seduce him, but he resists. In the crypts, Sansa and Lord Baelish reflect on the history of Lyanna and her alleged kidnapping by Rhaegar Targaryen. Lord Baelish informs Sansa that he is leaving, confident in her ability to navigate this hostile kingdom and seek vengeance for her family.

Jaime and Bronn sneak onto shore in Dorne, but are discovered by a patrol. They dispatch the soldiers after being ordered to disarm. They learn that Jaime is in their lands and they plot the fate of Myrcella and war with the Lannisters. Within minutes, Tyrion is able to deduce the identity of his captor. Unfortunately, Tyrion's wit strikes a nerve and Jorah knocks him out.

While Hizdahr discusses opening the fighting pits with Daenerys, the Sons of the Harpy mobilize. Citizens and groups of Unsullied are slaughtered in the streets. Ser Barristan Selmy comes to Grey Worm's rescue and the two manage to kill an entire squad of Harpy combatants before collapsing in exhaustion.

Grey Worm is on the mend after the assault from the Sons of the Harpy. Unfortunately, Ser Barristan didn't make it. In order to ferret out the truth, Daenerys gathers the leaders of Meereen's great families — including Hizdahr — and introduces them to her dragons Jon is faced with an unpopular decision — seek the aid of the wildlings to bolster their forces against the White Walkers After meeting with Tormund Giantsbane, Jon is able to strike an agreement with the wildling so long as he agrees to accompany Tormund in the task.

Ramsay's interest in Sansa annoys his mistress, Myranda Royce. During dinner, Ramsay reveals Reek formerly Theon to Sansa, but that isn't the only revelation of the day. Roose reveals that his wife will soon bear a son which could threaten Ramsay and his station. Stannis takes his leave of the Wall after contributing a few ships in his fleet to aid Jon in his mission north of the wall.

He marches for Winterfell. In order to prevent further instability in her realm, Daenerys not only agrees to re-open the fighting pits to free men , she agrees to marry Hizdahr in order to form a lasting bond with the Meereen people. Jorah and Tyrion cut through the ruins of Valyria and are set upon by stone men — people infected with the greyscale affliction and driven mad. The two manage to fight their way through but Jorah ends up contracting greyscale.

Arya continues her "training," scrubbing corpses and continually failing at a game she knows neither the rules nor the merit of - a "Game of Faces. Tyrion and Jorah get to talking and Jorah learns of his father - former Lord Commander Jeor Mormont - and his death during a mutiny north of the Wall.

A man brings his dying daughter into the House of Black and White, and Arya helps ease her passing with a story and a drink of poisoned water. Later, she follows Jaqen into a room where the walls and pillars are covered in human faces. He tells her she is ready for the next part of her training…. Tyrion and Jorah are taken by slavers. Luckily, Tyrion is able to spin a yarn about Jorah's chops in the fighting arena. The slavers decide to take them to the fighting pits in Meereen.

Lord Baelish attends a meeting with Cersei. He informs her of Sansa's whereabouts and the threat the Bolton's pose in further dividing Winterfell from the influence of the south. He pledges the loyalty of the Vale in exchange for being titled Warden of the North. Myrcella and Trystane grow impatient for the day when they may be husband and wife. Jaime and Bronn make it into town and find Myrcella just as the Sand Snakes close in. The Faith put Ser Loras and Margaery to question regarding past sins during an inquest.

Both lie and are taken into custody for bearing false witness. Myranda attempts to frighten Sansa with tales of Ramsay's past exploits, but it only strengthens Sansa's resolve. Later that night, Sansa is wed to Ramsay at the godswood. After the wedding, the two are left to consummate their vows, and Ramsay makes Reek watch as he forces himself onto Sansa. Jon and Tormund make ready their departure.

Before they leave, Sam gives Jon a dragonglass dagger. Later, Maester Aemon warns Sam and Gilly to take their child south before danger finds them on the Wall. Sansa reaches out to Reek - calling him by his true name and tasking him with lighting a candle in the Broken Tower to call for help. Theon reluctantly accepts Meanwhile, Brienne watches from a distance.

Maester Aemon passes away. Sam, Ser Alliser and the rest of the Night's Watch give him a proper sendoff. As they light the pyre, Alliser warns Sam that he's losing his friends — his safeguards. Ramsay shows Sansa the flayed corpse of an old woman — one of many Northerners loyal to the Starks — in an attempt to quash any notions of escape.

Sansa discreetly steals a tool from a workbench and returns to her quarters. Meanwhile, Stannis and his forces are battered by inclement weather. Melisandre forces Stannis to face a difficult decision: sacrifice his daughter Shireen for victory or suffer defeat. Gilly is harassed by two members of the Night's Watch. Sam tries to come to her rescue and stands his ground long enough for Ghost to scare the two men away.

Later, Gilly tends to Sam's wounds Tyrion and Jorah make it into town where they are sold to Yezzan zo Qaggaz. Meanwhile, Daenerys and Daario discuss her future marriage. Daario advises her to murder all of Meereen's nobles when the fighting pits are re-opened, but she declines.

Olenna attempts to convince High Sparrow to release Margaery and Loras but he refuses. She, later, receives a message from Lord Baelish. Meanwhile, Cersei consoles Tommen over his inability to free his queen. She offers to speak with High Sparrow and advocate for Loras and Margaery's release.

Myrcella meets with Jaime and tells him she will not return to King's Landing. In the cells, Bronn begins to feel the slow poisons Tyene Sand had used on her daggers when she wounded him. After forcing him to admit that she is the most beautiful woman in the world, she hands him the antidote.

Lord Baelish meets with Olenna in the remains of his brothel. Joined in their conspiracy to commit regicide, she threatens to bring him down if her family should fall. Daenerys attends a fight in the Pits. Jorah learns of her presence and fights his way to the top, revealing his identity to the queen.

When she orders him dismissed, he presents Tyrion to her as a gift. After dropping in on Margaery to gloat, Cersei meets with High Sparrow. Without warning, Cersei is taken into custody for her relationship with her cousin, Lancel. Daenerys grants an audience to Tyrion and Jorah. Tyrion makes a strong case for being appointed her advisor and his first bit of counsel leads to Jorah's banishment from the city.

Arya continues her training in the House of Black and White. She learns to weave tales and identities so intricate that they blur the lines between reality and fantasy. Jaqen entrusts Arya with a mission and deploys her to the streets. Maester Qyburn visits Cersei in her chambers with news.

Kevan now presides over the small council and a trial has been set. King Tommen also refuses to act regarding the imprisonment of his queen and his mother. Sansa confronts Reek over his betrayal of the Starks and, in the heat of argument, he lets slip that Bran and Rickon are still alive. Meanwhile, Roose considers remaining in Winterfell and allowing Stannis and his army to freeze. Ramsay convinces Roose that they should strike first and that all he will need is 20 good men.

Daenerys and Tyrion speak in circles about his ultimate fate until she reveals she will have him counsel her on what she desires. Her desire: abolish the political game of thrones Westeros has played for centuries and freeing the innocent from the consequences of it. Jorah returns to the man who bought him and pledges his allegiance for a chance to fight in the pits before Daenerys.

Cersei continues to rebel against her captors, refusing to confess in exchange for water.

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